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Chapter 17 Stress & Health

Chapter 17 Stress & Health

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Chapter 17 Stress & Health

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  1. Chapter 17 Stress & Health Understanding Stress, Stress Responses & Effects, Psychological Factors & Health, Ways of Coping with Stress

  2. Understanding Stress • Stress: the arousal of one’s mind & body in response to demands made upon them. • Forces adaptation, coping, adjustment • Some see it as an event that causes tension • Others see it as response to disturbing situation • Others see as perception of event • Not all is bad, can increase sharpness, alertness, motivation: Eustress • Taking on challenge & achieving goal • Distress: negative stress • Linked to intense pressure or anxiety, can have severe pyshcolgical & physical effects • Mood, impair ability to experience pelasure, harm body

  3. Understanding Stress • Sources of Stress: • Stressor: the event/situation that produces stress • Varies person to person • If pile up can reach point when difficult to cope • See pg. 473, chart, #1 reason for student’s seeking counseling, over 50% • Frustration: being blocked from obtaining a goal • Daily Hassles: daily frustrations we all face • Household hassles, health hassles, time pressure hassles, inner concern hassles, environmental hassles, financial hassles, work hassles, future-security hassles • Life Changes: some are positive & desirable, tend to happen less often • 474: death of spouse, divorce, separation, jail, death of family member, personal injury/illness, marriage, fired from job, marital reconciliation, retirement

  4. Understanding Stress • Conflict: being pulled in 2 or more directions by opposing forces or motives, p[g. 475 • Pressure to make right choices • Approach-Approach Conflict: choice between 2 equally attractive alternatives • Self doubt about did you make correct decision? • Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict: choice between 2 equally unattractive alternatives • The presidential election (Ha ha! JK!) • Approach-Avoidance Conflict: choice of whether or not to do something when part of the situation is attractive but the other is not • Buy something you want & like, but costs lots of $ • Multiple Approach Avoidance: a choice between alternatives that have both good & bad aspects • Stay home & study, or go to movies?

  5. Understanding Stress • Personality Types: • Type A: intense • Always on the go, pressure on selves, always under stress, highly driven, competitive, impatient, rushed, pressured, operate at full speed, become annoyed with slight delay, never have enough time, do everything faster than others, get angry quickly • Higher risk for health issues, including heart disease • Type B: laid back • Relaxed, patient, not quick to anger, earn less money than Type A

  6. Stress: Responses & Effects • Responses to Stress • Self-Efficacy Expectations: beliefs people have that they can accomplish goals that they set for themselves • “The Little Engine that Could” • Closely related to self-confidence & ability to withstand stress • Psychological Hardiness: helps people withstand stress • Commitment: hardy are highly committed to jobs believe work is meaningful, regard stress as source of motivation, not threatening • Challenge: hardy seek out challenges, prefer stability, regard change as interesting & rewarding, not threatening • Control: hardy viewed themselves in control of lives & able to influence & control rewards & punishments received, not helpless

  7. Stress: Responses & Effects • Sense of Humor: • Student who had a sense of humor or saw humor in difficult situations were less stressed than those unable to find humor in the same situation • Emotional responses may benefit immune system as well • Predictability: the ability to predict a stressor reduces the amount of stress it causes • Brace for the event & plan how to cope • Social Support: presence and interest of others help cope with stress, insulate from effects • Those who lack social skills & spend time alone are more likely to develop infectious diseases • Express your concern for others • Provide physical relief if possible • Offer information or advice • Provide feedback to help make sense of the situation • Socialize with people under stress • Older people with support recover faster • Immigrant programs in US in past

  8. Stress: Responses & Effects • The General Adaptation Syndrome: 3 stages, body’s response to stress • Alarm Reaction: mobilizes the body for defensive action • Fight or flight: sympathetic nervous system activated, hormones, when removed returns to normal • Resistance Stage: once situation is removed, attempt to cope with the stressor & ovoid being overwhelmed with negative reactions • Body regains & restores itself • Exhaustion Stage: if stressor still isn’t removed • adrenal & other glands can’t secrete more hormones • muscles worn out, hearth & breathing slow, depleted, breaking point • Allergies, hives, ulcers, heart disease, death

  9. Stress: Responses & Effects • Effects of Stress on Immune System: • Immune System: prevents disease with white blood cells that destroy disease causing microorganisms, worn out body cells, and cancerous cells • Produce antibodies & destroy foreign bodies by surrounding & digesting them, then remembers for future fights • Stress & Immune System: • Stimulates bodies to produce steroids, suppresses immune system’s functioning • Steroids interfere with formation of antibodies, can’t fight germs • Functions less successfully, social support helps it function better

  10. Psychological Factors & Health • Biological & Psychological Factors: • Family history of disease, not sign of doom • Exposure, vaccines, accidents, injury, age • Health Psychology: concerned with the relationship between psychological factors & the prevention and treatment of physical illness • Anxiety & depression impair functioning of immune system, making people more vulnerable to physical health issues • Headaches, heart disease, cancer

  11. Psychological Factors & Health • Headaches: • One of most common stress related health problem, 20% estimated US • Muscle Tension headaches • Muscles tense in shoulders, neck, forehead, scalp • Dull, steady pain on both sides of heat, tightness or pressure • Migraine headache: sudden onset, severe throbbing pain on one side of head, last for hours or days, visual distortions or smells, sensitivity to light, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, loss of balance, mood change • 10% of Americans • Barometric pressure, pollen, drugs, aged cheese, hormonal changes • Type A behavior contributes to migraines • Treatment: • Over the counter medicines relieve pain, prescription for migraines • Behavioral methods, progressive relaxation or biofeedback training

  12. Psychological Factors & Health • Heart Disease: • Chronic stress can cause higher blood pressure & cholesterol • ½ deaths in US linked to heart disease • Family history (genetics) • Physical Conditions (obesity, cholesterol, hypertension, smoking, obesity, salt, angry) • Patterns of consumption (drinking, smoking, overeating, high cholesterol) • Type A behavior • Anger & Hostility • Job Strain • Lack of Exercise • Behavioral Changes: • Quit Smoking • Control Weight • Reduce Hypertension • Lower cholesterol levels • Change Type A behaviors • Exercise regularly

  13. Psychological Factors & Health • Cancer: rapid & abnormal growth of malignant cells • Blood, skin, digestive tract, lungs, reproductive organs • Can cause tumors & spread elsewhere • Immune System destroys them usually, but with weak immune system, less capable • Risk Factors: • Genetics • Behavior (smoking, tanning, animal fats, cigarette smoke) • Psychological Factors (anxiety, depression) • Psychological Aspects: • Deal with weakness, pain, medication side effects, anxiety about treatment, death, depression, vulnerability, insensitivity of others, painful side effects • Positive Attitude: • Can increase survival rate & decrease negative effects of treatment

  14. Ways of Coping With Stress • Defensive Coping: one way to handle stress & reduce immediate effects of stressor, but not most desirable way • Socially unacceptable behavior (substance abuse, aggression), running away from problems (withdrawal), self-deception (defense mechanisms: denial, repression, projection) • Doesn’t eliminate source of stress or improve response to stress

  15. Ways of Coping With Stress • Active Coping: changing the environment or situation (in socially acceptable ways) to remove stressors, or changing one’s response to stress so that stressors are no longer harmful • Changing stressful thoughts, relaxing (meditation, progressive relaxation), withstanding stress through exercise & deep breathing