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Stress and Health. Stress Facts. The American Academy of Family Physicians estimates that 60% of the problems brought to physicians in the U.S. are stress related. Many are the result of stress; others are made worse or last longer because of it. Health Problems with Excessive Stress.

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stress facts
Stress Facts
  • The American Academy of Family Physicians estimates that 60% of the problems brought to physicians in the U.S. are stress related. Many are the result of stress; others are made worse or last longer because of it.
health problems with excessive stress
Health Problems with Excessive Stress
  • CHD and stroke
  • Gastrointestinal problems such as ulcers
  • Impaired immune system
  • Insomnia, headache
  • Backache
  • Drug & alcohol use
how stress promotes illness
How Stress Promotes Illness
  • Direct effect
    • Raises blood pressure
    • Impairs immune system
  • Indirect effect
    • Less positive behaviors (exercise, healthy diet, lack of sleep)
    • More negative behaviors (drinking, smoking, unhealthy diet)
the stress target zone








(The optimal amount of stress)

The Stress Target Zone
stress continuum
Stress Continuum
  • Rust Out (Boredom)
    • Fatigue, frustration, dissatisfaction
  • Eustress
    • Creativity, problem solving, change, satisfaction
  • Burn Out (Distress)
    • Over-stimulation, ineffective problem solving, exhaustion, illness, low self-esteem
types of stressors
Types of Stressors
  • Environmental
    • Heat, noise, crowding
  • Physiological
    • Drugs, caffeine, tobacco
  • Emotional (psycho-social)
    • Pressures, life
characteristics of stressful events
Characteristics of Stressful Events
  • Negative
    • Harder to accept than
      • positive
  • Uncontrollable
    • Take control of what you
      • can
  • Ambiguous
    • Accompanies poorly defined
      • expectations
contemporary views of the nature of stress






Contemporary Views of the Nature of Stress

The Process of Stress

appraisal of stressors
Appraisal of Stressors

High Stress

See stressor as a threat




See stressor as a challenge

Low Stress

  • Commitment
  • Control
  • Challenge

Are you a “Hardy” Person?

responses to stress
Responses to Stress
  • Physiological
    • Increased HR
    • Tense muscles
  • Cognitive
    • Worry, lack of concentration
    • forgetfulness
  • Emotional
    • Anger, sense of dread
  • Behavioral
    • Less patient, hurrying
coping with stress

Stressorwithin your control

Active CopingStrategies



Stressorout of your control

Passive CopingStrategies

Coping with Stress
types of coping strategies
Active Coping Strategies




Problem Solving


Seeking Social Support

Passive Coping Strategies






Seeking Social Support

Types of Coping Strategies
types of social support
Types of Social Support
  • Informational
  • Material
  • Emotional
  • These may be either active or passive
summary of stress
Summary of Stress

You may not be able to smooth out the surf, but you can learn to ride the waves!

steps for stress management
Steps for Stress Management:
  • Identify causes and symptoms of stress
  • Use measures to reduce stress
  • Seek solutions for avoiding stressors
    • Accept what can't be changed
    • Act on what can be changed
  • Maintain fitness and health
    • Better able to cope with stress when rested and in good shape
common stress reduction techniques
Common Stress Reduction Techniques
  • Quick "time out"
  • Jacobson's progressive relaxation
  • Autogenic training
  • Biofeedback
  • Meditation / imagery
  • Exercise

Each technique will be discussed separately in subsequent slides.

quick time out
Quick "Time Out"
  • Deep breathing
  • Take mind off of problems
jacobson s progressive relaxation technique
Jacobson's Progressive Relaxation Technique
  • Involves alternate contraction and relaxation of muscles
  • Teaches person to identify stress-related tension in the body
autogenic relaxation training
Autogenic Relaxation Training
  • Combines deep rhythmic breathing with soothing imagery
  • Feelings of heaviness and warmth facilitate process
meditation imagery
Meditation / Imagery
  • Relies on deep breathing
  • Facilitated by images of peace and relaxation
  • Provides a break from reality
  • Improves mood and self-esteem
  • Stress is a natural part of life but with appropriate stress management techniques you can learn to manage it more effectively.
time management
Time Management
  • Maximizing your available time
  • Focusing your time on your priorities
steps for time management
Steps for Time Management
  • Step 1 Establish priorities
  • Step 2 Monitor current time use
  • Step 3 Analyze time use
  • Step 4 Make a schedule