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Biology A Standard 1A

Biology A Standard 1A

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Biology A Standard 1A

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  1. Biology A Standard 1A Macromolecules: Structure and Function of Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids, Proteins, Lipids

  2. Warm-up 09/17 • What is your definition of a carbohydrate? • What are some examples?

  3. Agenda 09/17 • What is a Carbohydrate? • Carbohydrate Notes p.8 • Homework pps. 13-15

  4. Carbohydrates (hydrates (H2O) of carbon) General formula: CnH2nOnor (CH2O)nn = number of C’s C = Carbon, H = Hydrogen, O = Oxygen Example: GLUCOSE C6H12O6

  5. Structure of Carbohydrates Saccharideis derived from the Latin for sugar (origin = "sweet sand") Carbohydrates classified according to the number of saccharide units they contain. Monosaccharide - contains a single carbohydrate unit. Disaccharide – made of two carbohydrate units. Polysaccharide – made of many carbohydrates units

  6. Glucose and Fructose

  7. Common small carbohydrates Monosaccharides can link to form disaccharides Glucose + Fructose Sucrose

  8. Cellulose Most abundant carbohydrate on the planet! Component of plant cell walls Indigestible by animals

  9. Starch Energy storage molecule in plants Can be digested by animals

  10. Glycogen Branched chain polymer of glucose Animal energy reserve Found primarily in liver and muscle

  11. Carbohydrates Cell structure: Cellulose, LPS, chitin Chitin in exoskeleton Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in bacterial cell wall Cellulose in plant cell walls

  12. What is a Carbohydrate? • Return to each station. • Record on your sheet how the picture relates to carbohydrates. • If you have any questions about the picture, add to your sheet too.

  13. Warm-up 09/19 • What are 2 major functions of carbohydrates? • Give an example of each.

  14. Agenda • Function Notes p.8 • CarbQuizzle • Lipids p.9 • Homework- p. 17-19

  15. C. Carbohydrate –Functions in the Cell p.8 • ENERGY STORAGE • Starch in plants • Glycogen in Animals • STRUCTURE • Cellulose - cell walls of plants, bacteria • Chitin - Exoskeleton of insects, fungi cell wall • CELL COMMUNICATION • Cell membrane

  16. Cellulose Most abundant carbohydrate on the planet! Component of plant cell walls Indigestible by animals

  17. Starch Energy storage molecule in plants Can be digested by animals

  18. Glycogen Branched chain polymer of glucose Animal energy reserve Found primarily in liver and muscle

  19. Carbohydrates Cell structure: Cellulose, LPS, chitin Chitin in exoskeleton Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in bacterial cell wall Cellulose in plant cell walls

  20. Carbohydrate Quizzle

  21. Carb Quiz 1 • One function of a carbohydrate is ___________. A: to provide the body with immediate energyB: keep the heart functioning smoothlyC: store and transport genetic material D: control the rate of reactions

  22. 2. • The three types of carbohydrates are _____________. • A: monosaccharide, polysaccharide, disaccharideB: glycerol, polysaccharide, monosaccharideC: disaccharide, monosaccharide, celluloseD: sugar, monosaccharide, polysaccharide

  23. 3. • What elements make up a carbohydrate? A: hydrogen, calcium, oxygenB: hydrogen, oxygen, carbonC: carbon, potassium, oxygen D: calcium, potassium, oxygen

  24. 4. • Glycogen, in your liver may be broken down to glucose. What type of carbohydrate is glycogen? A: polysaccharideB: disaccharideC: monosaccharideD: trisaccharide

  25. 5. • Large molecules that form when many monosaccharides bonded together are ___________. A: calciumB: sugarsC: monosaccharidesD: polysaccharides

  26. 6. • The carbohydrate that provides support in plants is called _________. A: chitinB: celluloseC: dextroseD: lipids

  27. 7. • Single sugars, called monosaccharides supply __________ to cells. A: energyB: healthC: calciumD: hydrolysis

  28. 8. • Which of the following is a carbohydrate? A: DNAB: insulinC: waxD: sucrose

  29. 9. • Carbohydrates and lipids have many carbon-hydrogen bonds; therefore they both _____________. A: store energy in these bondsB: dissolve in waterC: dissolve in saltsD: are similar to water molecules

  30. 10. • Which of the following is an organic molecule? A: waterB: iceC: nitrogenD: carbohydrates

  31. Lipids p.9 • What are they? • Fatty acids (Polymers of CH2 units) • Glycerol (creates a backbone for tails) • Other subunits (phosphate, etc) may be attached to yield “phospholipids”

  32. Lipid Building Blocks • Glycerol C3H8O3 • 3 Carbon Molecule • Fatty Acid Chains • = Triglyceride • One Glycerol • Three Fatty Acid Chains

  33. Agenda 09/18 • Homework Check • Video Review • What is a carbohydrate? • Article Read • Carbohydrate Quizzle Tomorrow!

  34. Homework • P.13 • P.14 • P.15 Questions 1-9

  35. Carbohydrates p.13 • Carbohydrates are used by the body for ________ and ________________in cell walls of plants and exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans. • They are made of smaller subunits called _________________. Monosaccharides have carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a __________. energy structural support monosaccharides 1:2:1 ratio

  36. Carbohydrates p.13 simple sugars glucose and fructose • Monosaccharides or ______________ include ____________________. • Although their chemical formulas are the same, they have __________________________. • These simple sugars combine to make ______________(double sugars like sucrose) and ________________ (long chains like cellulose, chitin, and glycogen). different structural formulas disaccharides polysaccharides

  37. Glucose and Fructose

  38. Homework p.15 • Macromolecules are also known as _______________________. • If all the macromolecules are made mainly of the elements CHO, how are they different? • Name 2 ways your body uses carbohydrates. • What are the subunits called that make up carbohydrates? • What is the ratio of C, H, and O in monosaccharides? • Name 3 monosaccharides. • Monosaccharides are ___________ sugars. • What are disaccharides & give an example? • Long chains of sugars are ______________. Name three.

  39. Complex Carbohydrates • Polysaccharides • Cellulose- plant structure • Starch- plant energy storage • Glycogen- animal energy storage • Chitin- animal structure