MP and MPM containing steroidal saponins.
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Saponins (Latin sapo, soap) are characterized by their property of producing a frothing aqueous solution, possessing a high surface activity. They also have haemolytic properties, and then injected into the blood stream are highly toxic. They can cause the death of cold blooded animals such as frogs, worms and fish even in 1:1000000 dilution. Their molecule consists of the aglycone called sapogenin and carbohydrates (sugars).
Normal line monodesmoside
cyclopentane perhydro phenanthrene
Saponins, whose aglycones are represented by pentacyclic compounds
Saponins may be containing from 1 to 11 monosaccharides and their derivatives. D-glucose, D-galactose, D-xylose, L-rhamnose, D-glucoronic and D-galacturonic acids are the most common. They form linear or branched chains, and may join by means of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups to aglycones in various position.
For obtaining of saponins from MPM water or diluted alcohols are used. Aglycones are well soluble in organic solvents.
Saponins stimulate secretion of bronchial glands, enhance cough center and thus are widely used as expectorants. Also they are used as adaptogenic drugs (ginseng, aralia), regulate water-mineral balance (glycyrrhiza), have anti-inflammatory, diuretic and laxative properties. Steroidal saponins are source for production of corticosteroids (cortisone hormones) and in treatment of atherosclerosis.
Dioscoreaerhizomata cum radicibusWild Yam rhizome with rootDioscoreanipponicaWild Yam, Makino, China root, Devil’s BonesDioscoreaceae