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MARPOL 73/78. Towards the Drafting of a National Implementation Plan for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Prepared by. Abdulaziz M. Al-Suwailem. KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS. Prepared for Ministry of Transport. MARPOL 73/78.

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slide1

MARPOL 73/78

Towards the Drafting of a National Implementation Plan for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Preparedby

Abdulaziz M. Al-Suwailem

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS

Prepared for

Ministry of Transport

slide2

MARPOL 73/78

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (administered byIMO)

  • First ever comprehensive anti-pollution convention dealing with ship-borneoil as well as other chemicals, harmful substances, garbage, sewage, and air pollutants.
  • Concerned with jurisdiction, inspection, and enforcement.

Objectives:

To completely eliminatethe intentional pollution of the marine environment by oil and other harmful substances; and

To minimize the accidental discharge of such substances.

slide3

MARPOL 73/78: CONTENTS

contains 20 Articles and 6 Annexeswith Regulations

  • Annex I : Prevention of Pollution by Oil
  • Annex II : Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk
  • Annex III : Harmful Substances in Packaged Form
  • Annex IV : Sewage
  • Annex V : Garbage
  • Annex VI : Air pollution

Annexes III, IV, V and VI are optional,but Saudi Arabia officially acceded to Annexes I–V on 23 May 2005.

  • Therefore, Saudi Arabia is obliged to fully implement MARPOL 73/78, including Annexes I-V.
  • Implementation approach is discussed below!
slide4

MARPOL 73/78: RATIFICATION (as of 2004)

CANADA

NORTH AMERICA

EUROPE

USA

JAPAN

ASIA

KSA

AFRICA

23 MAY 2005

SOUTH AMERICA

AUSTRALIA

RUSSIA

BRAZIL

slide5

MARPOL 73/78: ENTRY INTO FORCE

Saudi Arabia is obliged to implement Annexes I–V.

slide6

MARPOL DEFINITIONS: VESSELS

Ship covers vessels of any type whatsoever operating in the

marine environment and includes:

  • hydrofoil boats,
  • air-cushion vehicles,
  • submersibles,
  • floating craft,
  • fixed or floating platforms, and
  • a vessel fitted with cargo spaces which are constructed and utilized to carry oil in bulk of an aggregate capacity of 200 m3 or more.

Oil tanker means a ship constructed or adapted primarily to carry oil in bulk in its cargo spaces and includes combination carriers and any chemical tanker when it is carrying a cargo or part cargo of oil in bulk.

slide7

MARPOL 73/78: Vessel Categories

  • Gross tonnage (GRT) is a measure of the internal capacity or volume of a ship, tug, or barge. It is a cubic or space measurement of all areas of a vessel with some allowances or deductions for exempt spaces such as living quarters.
slide8

SINGLE-HULL TANKERS

Double Hull

Single Hull

slide9

SINGLE-HULL TANKERS

  • Segregated Ballast Tanks

Segregated Ballast  means the ballast water introduced into a tank which is completely separated from the cargo oil and fuel oil system and which is permanently allocated to the carriage of ballast or cargoes other than oil.

slide10

MARITIME ZONES

INTERNATIONAL AIR SPACE

NATIONAL AIR SPACE

CONTIGUOUSZONE

TERRITORIALSEA

INTERNALWATERS

EEZ

HIGH SEAS

12NM

BASELINE

24NM

200NM

slide11

MARPOL DEFINITIONS: SPECIAL AREA

Special Area means a sea area where, for recognized technical reasons in relation to its oceanographic and ecological condition and to the particular character of its traffic, the adoption of special mandatory methods for the prevention of sea pollution by oil is required, Under the Convention, these special areas are provided with a higher level of protection than other areas of the sea.

  • List of ANNEX I(Oil) Special Areas:
  • Red Sea Area
  • Gulfs Area
  • Gulf of Aden Area
  • Mediterranean Sea Area
  • Baltic Sea Area
  • Black Sea Area
  • Antarctic Area
  • North-West European Waters
slide12

MARPOL DEFINITIONS: SPECIAL AREA

  • ANNEX II(Noxious Liquid Substances) Special Areas:
  • Baltic Sea Area
  • Black Sea Area
  • Antarctic Area
  • With strict controls on tank washing and residue discharge procedures!
  • ANNEX V(Garbage) Special Areas:
  • Baltic Sea area
  • Black Sea Area
  • Red Sea area
  • Gulfs area
  • Mediterranean Sea Area
  • North Sea
  • Antarctic Area (south of 60°S)
  • Wider Caribbean Region, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea
  • With strict controls on the disposal of garbage!
actions mandated by marpol
Actions Mandated by MARPOL
  • MARPOL IMPLEMENTATION
  • Inspect foreign ships visiting Saudi Arabian ports to ensure that they meet international standards.
  • Monitor Compliance.
  • Prohibit violations, make penalties.
  • Carry out surveys as per MARPOL requirements for all ocean going ships registered in Saudi Arabia.
  • Issue International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificates (IOPP) to surveyed ocean going ships.
  • Provide adequate Reception Facilities to ships visiting Saudi Arabian Ports.
  • Phase out single-hull tankers.
slide15

MARPOL IMPLEMENTATION

  • Inspections
  • Confirm possession of valid certificate on board.
  • Examine ship condition, only if there “clear grounds” for believing that ship does not correspond “substantially” with the certificate).
  • If requested by another state (including a coastal state), if there is sufficient evidence that the ship discharged harmful substances in “any place.”
  • General Inspection Procedure
  • Checking of all Certificates required as per MARPOL
  • Walk-through of the ship including deck, and have a visual check of the condition of all the equipment and machinery as well as hatch closing arrangement, air pipes and vent coatings.
slide16

MARPOL IMPLEMENTATION

  • Possible Actions

Under the provisions of the Convention, Port State may:

  • Detain a ship until deficiencies have been rectified
  • A vessel is detained when a deficiency is found which must be rectified before it sails.
  • Permit a ship to sail with deficiencies subject to conditions
  • Penalties

Assess appropriate penalties for the contravention of Convention requirements, such as:

  • immediate flag State detention of the vessel.
  • withdrawal of the vessel’s Certificate of Registry.
  • fine
  • suspension or revocation of ship’s officers’ Certificates of Competency.
slide17

MARPOL IMPLEMENTATION

  • Surveys
  • Ships in international voyages shall be subject to surveys by officers of the Ministry of Transport to ensure that equipment, fittings, arrangements, and materials fully comply with the applicable requirements of MARPOL Regulation.

International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate (IOPP Certificate)

  • The IOPP Certificate shall be issued to:
  • Oil Tankers ≥ 150 GRT
  • Ships ≥ 400 GRT

by the Minister of Transport after survey of the ocean going ship for a period not exceeding 5 years as evidence of their compliance with the pollution prevention equipment and survey requirements of MARPOL Annex I.

slide18

MARPOL REQUIREMENTS

Certificates and Documents required on board Ocean Going Ships

slide19

MARPOL REQUIREMENTS

Certificates and Documents required on board Ocean Going Ships… (cont.)

slide21

MARPOL REQUIREMENTS

  • Reception Facilities

All oil loading terminals, repair ports, or other ports that service oceangoing Ships ≥ 400 GRT and oceangoing Oil Tankers ≥ 150 GRTshall be provided with the following facilities:

  • reception and treatment of all dirty ballast and tank washing water from oil tankers.
  • sufficient capacity to receive the residues/mixtures and the needs of ships using them without causing undue delay to the ships involved. 
  • shall be equipped with oil transfer hose adapters designed to allow connection with the standard flange specified by the International Maritime Organization (IMO).
slide22

MARPOL REQUIREMENTS

Oily waste reception facilities shall be available at:

  • (a) all ports and terminals in which crude oil is loaded into oil tankers where such tankers have immediately prior to arrival completed a ballast voyage of not more than 72 hr or not more than 1,200 nautical miles.
  • (b) all ports and terminals in which oil other than crude oil in bulk is loaded at an average quantity of more than 1,000 MT per day.
  • (c) all ports having ship repair yards or tank cleaning facilities;
  • (d) all ports and terminals which handle ships provided with the sludge tank(s) required by Regulation 17 of Annex I of MARPOL 73/78.
  • (e) all ports in respect of oily bilge waters and other residues, which cannot be discharged in accordance with Regulation 9 of Annex I of MARPOL 73/78; and
  • (f) all loading ports for bulk cargoes in respect of oil residues from combination carriers which cannot be discharged in accordance with Regulation 9 of Annex I of MARPOL 73/78.
slide24

MARPOL 73/78: Vessel Categories

  • Gross tonnage (GRT) is a measure of the internal capacity or volume of a ship, tug, or barge. It is a cubic or space measurement of all areas of a vessel with some allowances or deductions for exempt spaces such as living quarters.
slide25

Phase Out of Single-Hull Tankers

MARPOL PHASE-OUT REQUIREMENTS

slide26

MARPOL 73/78 REQUIREMENTS

Small Vessels

There is no statutory requirement for ships below 5,000 tonnes dead-weight to have double hulls.

slide32

Small Vessels: <5000 ton deadweight

There is no statutory requirement for ships below 5,000 tons deadweight to have double hulls.

slide33

SINGLE HULL PHASE OUT: EXTENSION

Can any single hull tankers operate beyond the dates set?

The revised regulation 13G of MARPOL allows the Administration (flag State) to permit continued operation of Category 2 or 3 tankers beyond its phase-out date in accordance with the schedule subject to satisfactory results from the Condition Assessment Scheme (CAS).

Condition Assessment Scheme (CAS) is an additional reinforced inspection scheme specifically developed to detect structural weaknesses of single hull oil tankers.

Category 2 and 3 tankers with an age over 15 years to be allowed to continue beyond 2005 subject to CAS, but the continued operation must not go beyond the anniversary of the date of delivery of the ship in 2015 or the date on which the ship reaches 25 years of age after the date of its delivery, whichever is earlier.

slide34

STATES REGULATION TERMS

  • Flag State
  • Nation where a vessel is registered.
  • Vessel is essentially granted nationality
  • Obligations and Responsibilities:
  • Regular Inspection of its own ships
  • Issuing of IOPP Certificates to its own ships
  • Safety regulation
  • Regulation of ship manning and crew competence
  • Setting the standards for ship construction, design, equipment, and seaworthiness
slide35

STATES REGULATION TERMS

  • Flag States and Classification
  • Most flag states are authorising classification societies to carry out inspections and issue certificates on their behalf on their fleet operating internationally
    • This is called Statutory Certification
  • Flag states authorise Classification Societies recognised by them
  • IMO has issued a Resolution with guidelines for such recognition
slide36

STATES REGULATION TERMS

  • Port State
  • Nation where a vessel intends to dock
  • Obligations and Responsibilities:
  • Boarding of ships and checking the status of certification
  • Physical inspection to verify that ships are complying with international conventions
  • Ensuring that adequate shore reception facilities are provided for the disposal of sludge, oily bilge water, and other residues,with specific requirements for ports and terminals where crude oil and other oils than crude are loaded.

In case of serious deficiencies, ships may be detained until rectification has been carried out

slide37

STATES REGULATION TERMS

  • Coastal State
  • Nation within which a vessel passes through a territorial sea or Exclusive Economic Zone
  • Responsibilities and Environmental Rights in the Territorial Sea:
  • Enforcement of environmental protective rules decided by IMO
  • Prohibition of pollution discharges
  • Forcing foreign ships out of territorial sea in case of willful and serious pollution
  • Designation of protected areas
  • Designation of navigational routes
the marpol regime summing up

Implement MARPOL regulations on own ships

FLAG STATE

Implement MARPOL regulations in territorial waters

COASTAL STATE

Implement MARPOL regulations on ships docking at ports

PORT STATE

Ensure implemented standards being maintained

SHIPOWNER

THE MARPOL REGIMESumming Up
slide39

ANNEX I: OIL

What will be regulated?

  • Discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixtures from oil tankers and ships.
discharge restrictions

ANNEX I: OIL

Discharge Restrictions

Bases of restriction and regulated:

  • the type of vessel (oil tanker or ship)
    • gross tonnage
    • route (while passing through special areas or a certain distance from the nearest land)
slide41

ANNEX I: OIL

  • Minimum Discharge

For Oil Tankers:

  • The instantaneous rate of discharge of oil content does not exceed 30 liters per nautical mile.
  • The total quantity of oil discharged into the sea does not exceed 1/15,000 (for old tankers) or 1/30,000 (for new tankers) of total quantity of cargo.

For Ships:

  • The oil content of effluent without dilution does not exceed 15 ppm.
  • The instantaneous rate of discharge of oil contentis the rate of discharge of oil in liters per hour at any instant divided by the speed of the ship in knots at the same instant.
slide42

OIL TANKERS: Discharge Limits

Maximum Limit

Faster, OK!

Lower oil content, OK!

NOT ALLOWABLE ZONE

750

600

Not allowed, too slow!

Oil Content of Discharge (liter/hr)

450

300

ALLOWABLE ZONE

150

1 knot = 1 nm/hr

0

10

20

25

5

15

Ship Speed (knots)

  • If running slowly, then reduce oil content of discharge!
  • RULES:
  • If oil content is higher, then speed up!
slide43

OIL TANKERS: Discharge Limits

DATA POINTS

OLD Tankers

107

105

103

104

107

106

0.07

0.03

6.67

3.33

66.7

33.3

666.7

333.3

0.67

0.33

106

105

NEW Tankers

104

103

800

600

Total Oil Discharged (MT)

NOT ALLOWABLE ZONE

(Area above each curve)

400

100

0

Oil Cargo (MT)

slide44

ANNEX I: OIL

  • Discharge Exceptions

Inside Special Areas (Red Sea, Arabian Gulf):

Discharge of clean or segregated ballast or processed bilge water from machinery spaces only if:

  • The bilge water does not originate from cargo pump-room bilges.
  • The bilge water is not mixed with cargo oil residues.
  • The ship is proceeding en route.
  • The oil content of the effluent without dilution does not exceed 15 parts per million.
  • The ship has in operation oil filtering equipment.
slide45

ANNEX I: OIL

  • Discharge Exceptions

Outside Special Areas on an international voyage:

Discharge of clean or segregated ballast or unprocessed oily mixtures which without dilution have an oil content not exceeding 15 ppm and which do not originate from cargo pump-room bilges and are not mixed with cargo oil residues.

In case of emergency or accident

  • Discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixture necessary for the purpose of securing the safety of a ship or saving life at sea.
  • Discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixture resulting from damage to a ship or its equipment.
  • Discharge of substances containing oil used for the purpose of combating pollution incidents to minimize the damage from pollution.
slide46

ANNEX II: NOXIOUS SUBSTANCES

  • Four Categories of Noxious Substances

Less Harmful

Discharge regulations in all areas

slide47

ANNEX II: NOXIOUS SUBSTANCES

Discharge regulations with respect to Special Areas

slide48

ANNEX II: NOXIOUS SUBSTANCES

Discharge regulations with respect to Special Areas… (cont.)

  • Chemical tankers shall have an International Pollution Prevention Certificate for the Carriage of Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk
  • However, ships that have an International Certificate of Fitness for Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk as per IBC Code, do not need such a certificate as they are deemed to comply under the IBC Code
  • Chemical tankers shall also have a Procedures and Arrangements (P&A) Manual and a Cargo Record Book
slide49

ANNEX III: HARMFUL SUBSTANCES

  • Harmful Substances carried in Packaged Form
  • Applies to all ships
  • A ship is subject to inspection where there are clear grounds for believing that the master or the crew are not familiar with essential shipboard procedures relating to the prevention of pollution by noxious liquid substances.
  • Steps should be taken to ensure that the ship shall not sail until the situation has been brought to order.
  • Identification of Annex III Substances
  • bio-accumulated to a significant extent and known to produce a hazard to aquatic life or to human health ;
  • bio-accumulated with attendant risk to aquatic organisms or to human health with a short retention of the order of one week or less;
  • liable to produce tainting of seafood;
  • highly toxic to aquatic life.
slide50

ANNEX IV: SEWAGE

  • applies to all ships ≥ 400 GRT carrying 14 persons or more
slide51

ANNEX V: GARBAGE

  • Garbage means all kinds of victual, domestic, and operational waste excluding fresh fish and parts thereof
  • Cargo associated waste, spilt cargo and cargo waste are also to be considered as garbage if none of the other Annexes is applicable
slide52

ANNEX V: GARBAGE

  • applies to all ships, including yachts, fishing vessels and offshore platforms

Discharge regulations with respect to Special Areas

slide54

MARPOL 73/78

Requirements for Implementation

  • Develop and implement a national implementation plan.
    • Report implemented measures and their effectiveness.
    • Exchange information.
    • Promote public awareness and education
  • Recommended Phases of Implementation
  • Phase 1: Determination of co-ordination mechanisms
  • and organization of process.
  • Phase 2:Establishment of inventory and assessment of
  • national infrastructure and capacity.
  • Phase 3: Setting of priorities and determination of
  • objectives.
  • Phase 4: Formulation of a National Implementation Plan
  • (NIP)andspecific Action Plans.
  • Phase 5: Endorsement of the NIP and Action Plans

THIS PROCESS IS CALLEDBOTTOM-UP APPROACH!

slide55

MARPOL IMPLEMENTATION

  • Top-Down Approach

National Legislation

National Legislation

Draft a National Implementation Plan (NIP) and specific Action Plans (APs)

1

2

Min. of Transport submits NIP and APs for review to the stakeholders

Stakeholders approve or recommend a revision of the NIP and APs

3

NIP and APs are endorsed to the National Government for legislation

4

  • Bottom-Up Approach

1

Phase 5

Saudi Arabian Approach

2

Phase 4

Phase 3

3

Phase 2

4

Phase 1

slide56

MARPOL IMPLEMENTATION

  • REQUIRED ACTIVITIES
  • Development of a detailed inventory of ships and ports.
  • Drafting of new legislation/regulation.
    • Strengthening of compliance and enforcement of existing regulation.
    • Training and capacity building activities on various issues.
    • Development of a national marine pollution management strategy.
    • Monitoring to ensure compliance and enforcement of regulations.
    • Development of reception facilities at ports.
    • Implementation of awareness-raising and education activities
slide57

MARPOL IMPLEMENTATION

  • Important Consideration
  • sharing of responsibilities for developing specific Action Plans amongst:
  • government agencies
  • industry
  • other stakeholders
  • Key Factors in NIP Formulation
  • availability of data to inform decisions,
  • political commitment,
  • meaningful participation of ship owners,
  • access to resources: human, financial, and technical.
slide58

MARPOL IMPLEMENTATION

Key Organizational Structure

Ship Owners

(Compliance)

PME

(Marine Environment)

Ministry of Transport

(Focal Point)

Coast Guard

(Enforcement)

Ports Authority

(Port Activities)

Other Stakeholders

(e.g. General Public, etc.)

  • Arrows and connectors are coordinating mechanisms!
slide59

MARPOL 73/78: TASKING

  • Major tasks of the key players in implementation
  • Ministry of Transport

national focal point for the MARPOL Convention

  • main executing agency responsible for enabling activities leading to the development of a National Implementation Plan
  • Presidency of Meteorology and
  • Environment (PME)
  • principal body for planning and coordination of activities related to environmental protection and improvement
  • concerned with environmental pollution problems and provides for preventive and ameliorative measures to check environmental degradation
slide60

MARPOL 73/78: TASKING… (cont.)

  • Port Authority

installation of reception facilities

  • inspection of ships requesting use of ports
  • Coast Guard
  • enforcement and monitoring within territorial waters and the EEZ
  • make apprehensions for ships in violation of MARPOL
  • Ship Owners
  • ensure compliance of ships with MARPOL requirements, in coordination with the Ministry of Transport (survey)
  • monitor performance of own ships within and outside territorial waters