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The 100 Years War. France vs. England 1337 – 1453. Entering the Ring…. Causes. Conflicting French and English interests in SW France Edward III lays claim to the French throne (thought he could get away with it b/c mom was a French princess)

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the 100 years war
The 100 Years War

France vs. England

1337 – 1453

causes
Causes
  • Conflicting French and English interests in SW France
  • Edward III lays claim to the French throne (thought he could get away with it b/c mom was a French princess)
  • English’s ancestors were the Normans and they wanted to hold on to those lands
  • Both wanted control of the English Channel
  • Also a good old-fashioned rivalry (think back to Monty Python)
round 1 1338 1360
Round 1 (1338 – 1360)
  • Marked by English triumphs, especially due to their use of the longbow
  • In many cases, English troops were outnumbered but still emerged victorious
  • Left demoralized, the French signed the peace treaty in 1360, giving lands in the SW of

France to the English

round 2 1361 1413
Round 2 (1361 – 1413)
  • France slowly gained the upper hand
  • Around the turn of the century, both France and England experienced internal disunity
    • There was a coup in England
    • France’s Charles VI went mad, allowing two opposing factions to push France into civil war.
  • Henry V of England decided this was an opportune chance to invade France, and he does.
round 3 1413 1453
Round 3 (1413 – 1453)
  • French peasants were forced into the forests by Henry’s invasion
  • Many prophecies circulated about how the French would emerge from the war—one said a virgin would deliver the French from the invaders…
  • Joan of Arc emerged in the French court and Charles VII allowed her to lead the army (which she did very successfully)
a winner is declared
A “winner” is Declared!
  • Joan was captured by English allies in 1430
  • In her trial, Joan was accused of witchcraft, convicted of heresy, and burned at the stake in 1431.
  • This rallied the French (saw Joan as martyr)

who also had the new invention of the cannon!

  • Little by little, they drove the English out of France
  • Charles VII formally recognized as king of France in 1437 upon entering Paris
  • Hostilities ceased in 1453
  • Church said that Joan wasn’t a heretic in 1455 (she was later canonized a saint)
impact of 100 years war that lasted over 100 years
Impact of 100 Years War (that lasted over 100 Years)
  • Increased French national pride = expanded king’s power
  • War forced English monarchs to rely on Parliament for $ = Parliament had “power of purse”
  • Changed medieval world
    • Disappearance of armored knights & castles (weapons like longbow & cannon too strong)
    • Monarchs gained power & raised own armies for wars