Spelling & Reading Development. Dr. Nikki Pitchford C82DEV. Learning objectives. Describe stages of spelling development. Describe stages of reading development. Describe relationship between reading and spelling development.
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Dr. Nikki Pitchford
BTRSS for “monster” or 1MMPMPMPH for “chirp”.
R for “are”, U for “you”, or LEFT for “elephant”.
IFU LEV AT THRD STRET IWEL KOM TO YOR HAWS THE ED “If you live at Third Street I will come to your house. The End.”
EGUL for “eagle” rather than EGL as in phonetic stage.
EIGHTEE for “eighty” instead of ATE as in phonetic stage.
(Biemiller, 1970; Torrey, 1979; Weber, 1970).
'yellow' recognized by the “two sticks in the middle of the word”
'follow' read as “yellow” due to the double ’ll' shared by both words
Step READING SPELLING
Taken from Frith (1985)
(i) visual language (recognition memory for words & letters)
(ii) oral language (vocabulary; phoneme segmentation & deletion)
(iii) reading (lexical decision & word naming*)
(iv) spelling (written reproduction after seeing a word)
Start of yearEnd of year
Reading* Spelling Reading* Spelling
Visual language 0.63 0.63 0.28 0.04
Oral language 0.77 0.74 0.74 0.57
PA Words & Nonwords Alphabetic (nonwords)
Time 1 0.300.31
Time 2 0.53 0.66
PA training Reading Spelling
Grade 1 marginal effectvery large effect
(p < .10) (p < .001)
Grade 2 large effect very large effect
(p < .01) (p < .001)
(reading regular words and irregular words)
Two routes to skilled reading
(reading regular words and nonwords)
print segments to sound
Two routes to skilled reading
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