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Muslim Lands Fall to Imperialist Demands. Age of Imperialism. Egypt. After Napoleon withdrew from Egypt in 1801, Muhammad Ali seized power in 1805 and by 1811 he rid the Mamluks of their lands and privileges.

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egypt
Egypt
  • After Napoleon withdrew from Egypt in 1801, Muhammad Ali seized power in 1805 and by 1811 he rid the Mamluks of their lands and privileges.
  • Ali adopted French practices to rebuild Egypt. He constructed a new army, military schools to teach European skills and sciences, and factories. Money came from confiscating Muslim land and forcing farmers to sell crops to government.
  • In 1841 European pressure forced Muhammad Ali to withdraw and Europeans were allowed to do business in Egypt.
ottoman reform
Ottoman Reform
  • Sultan Selim III introduced reforms for the Ottoman Empire. He wanted to create a European style military, bring governors under rule of the central government, and standardize taxes.
  • Reforms failed because Janissaries imposed reforms and in 1805 the Janissaries revolted. Also, Muslim scholars resented reforms and Greek independence in 1829 with help from western powers weakened the Empire. After 1839 the empire became dependent on European powers for survival.
causes of crimean war
Causes of Crimean War
  • Russians were attempting to seize Ottoman land. After the invasion of Syria by Muhammad Ali in 1833 a treaty was signed that recognized Russia as the protector of all Ottoman Orthodox.
  • In 1852, the sultan named France protector of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. Russia protested and invaded Ottoman territories. War began in 1853 between Russia and the Ottoman Empire with France and Britain as allies.
holy sepulchre
Holy Sepulchre
  • The Holy Sepulchre is sacred to Christians. It is said to be the place where Jesus was buried. Russia, being the protector of Ottoman Orthodox Christians, was offended when France received the honor of being its protector.
crimean war
Crimean War
  • The Crimean War lasted from 1853 to 1856. It was fought in Romania, the Black Sea, and the Crimean peninsula. British and French forces trapped Russian fleet in the Black Sea, Ottomans resisted on the Romanian front and Russia was outmatched at Sevastopol. Russia suffered from disease and their lack of railroads and official corruption led to their inability to supply forces and led to their defeat.
effects of crimean war
Effects of Crimean War
  • The Crimean War changed several things in the Ottoman Empire. Britain and France gained permission to check colonies in the Middle East.
  • The tsar and government had to deal with calls for military education and serfdom reform.
  • War marked change from traditional to more modern warfare. Caps replaced pouring gunpowder and cavalry units were destroyed due to more accurate and efficient rifles.
  • An Ottoman imperial bank was set up in 1840 and Ottoman gold coins were replaced by the British pound. The 1850’s brought banks, insurance companies, and legal firms.
  • Rural people moved to cities and cities grew, magnified by Polish and Hungary refugees escaping conflicts between Russia and Europe. Urban and labor classes emerged in these cities as well.
  • Ottoman government became highly dependent on foreign loans. In return, Ottomans lowered tariffs for European imports and Europeans experienced extraterritorial rights.
effects of crimean war cont
Effects of Crimean War (cont.)
  • Foreign trade brought in large exports but there were few imports. National debt rose and reform groups called for a constitution and allowing all men to vote.
  • Young Ottomans believed empire would be dominated by European practices. These men promoted liberal ideas such as national pride and modern Islamic views. However, these calls were short lived when Sultan Abdul Hamid II suspended their work.