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Life During Wartime. Chapter 11 Section 3 Page 351. African American Soldiers. Union nor Confederacy accepted African Americans at the beginning of the war. 1862, Union began allowing blacks to serve. 10% of Union army was black Served in segregated units

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Life during wartime l.jpg

Life During Wartime

Chapter 11 Section 3

Page 351

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African American Soldiers

  • Union nor Confederacy accepted African Americans at the beginning of the war.

  • 1862, Union began allowing blacks to serve.

  • 10% of Union army was black

  • Served in segregated units

  • Could not rise above the rank of captain.

  • Alexander Augusta, a surgeon, did become a lieutenant.

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African American Soldiers

  • Black troops were paid less than whites.

  • Some black regiments served w/o pay rather then take the lesser amount offered.

  • Congress finally equalized the pay for all troops in 1864.

  • Mortality rates for African Americans was higher b/c they served in high disease areas.

  • When African American troops were captured by the Confederates they were executed rather than treated as prisoners.

  • A particularly gruesome massacre occurred at Fort Pillow Tennessee were Confederate troops murdered 200+ men as they begged for their lives.

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Slave Resistance in the Confederacy

  • As Union forces pushed deeper into Confederate territory, thousands of slaves sought freedom behind the lines of the Union army.

  • Slaves who remained on plantations broke tools and sabotaged the farms.

  • Southerners were fearful of a slave uprising so they spread rumors about the poor treatment of freed slaves.

  • By 1864 many Confederates realized that slavery was doomed.

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Southern Shortages

  • Food Shortage

    • Drain of man power to the war

    • Union occupation of food growing areas

    • Loss of slaves to work the fields

  • Meat became a luxury

  • Food prices skyrocketed

  • 1863, women and children were rioting over bread & rice

  • Union blockade of southern ports created shortages of items including salt, sugar, coffee, medicine, ect.

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Northern Economic Growth

  • War had a more positive affect on the Northern economy.

  • Most industries were booming

  • Wages did not keep up w/ prices so many people’s standard of living declined.

  • When white male workers went on strike, employers hired women, free blacks, immigrants, & boys to replace the men at lower wages.

  • Northern women got gov. jobs for the first time.

  • Many businesses became corrupt by cheating the gov. on their contracts.

  • Nation’s first income tax was used during the war.

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Lives on the Line

  • Life on the front lines was difficult.

    • Men were not given baths on a regular bases.

    • Bathrooms and garbage disposal was almost unheard of.

    • Body lice, dysentery, & diarrhea were common.

  • Army rations were not appealing.

  • Union troops lived on beans, bacon, & hard biscuits.

  • Southerners food was even less appealing.

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Civil War Medicine

  • Established a Sanitary Commission to improve the conditions for troops.

  • It sent agents to teach troops how to sanitize water & set up hospitals.

  • Dorthea Dix became the first female superintendent of women nurses.

    • She insisted nurses be 30+ & plain looking.

    • Clara Barton served on the front lines of battle.

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Civil War Medicine

  • As a result of the Sanitary Commission, the death rate among Union troops dropped.

  • The South did not have a Sanitary Commission but thousands of women volunteered as nurses.

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  • Improvements didn’t reach prisons where life was worse than in camps.

  • The worst Confederate prison was a Andersonville, GA.

  • Prisoners had no shelter & they drank from the same steam that acted as the sewer.

  • 1/3 of the prisoners at Andersonville died.

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  • The South’s lack of food & supplies also contributed to the bad conditions as prisons.

  • Prison camps in the North were only slightly better.

  • Did provide shelter and food

  • 15% of the prisoners in the South died

  • 12% of the prisoners in the North died

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Answer the following questions

  • What was the experience of African American soldiers in the Union army?

  • How did slaves aid the fight for freedom in the South?

  • How did the war affect the economy in the South?

  • How did the war affect the economy in the North?

  • How were women affected by the war?

  • What new measure did the U.S. government use to pay for the war?

  • What kinds of conditions did soldiers live in during the war?

  • How were prisoners of war treated?

  • How did the U.S. Sanitary Commission and Clara Barton help soldiers?