CIRCULATORY DISTURBANCE. Classification:. 1- Disturbance in the volume of circulating blood. 2- Obstruction in the cardiovascular system. 1- Disturbance in Blood volume:. 1- Hyperaemia : increase in the blood flow to an organ as result of dilation of its arterioles and capillaries.
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1- Hyperaemia: increase in the blood flow to an organ as result of dilation of its arterioles and capillaries.
2- Congestion: increase venous blood in an organ as result of obstruction to venous outflow, the veins, venules and capillaries becom passively dilated.
3- Haemorrhage: Escape of blood outside the blood vessels or cardiac chambers.
-the alveolar capilleries are dilated and congested ,the alveolar walls are thickened
-the alveolar spaces contain intact and haemolysed red cells , brown haemosiderin granules and heart failure cells.
-the central veins are dilated and congested. The sinusoids are dilated and congested, they contain excess red cells haemosiderin and necrotic liver cells.
Cerebral hemorrhage is usually caused by rupture of a small vessel in the parenchyma. The haemorrhage may be the result of an injury, an abnormality of the blood vessels, or high blood pressure.
haematoma (black), or blood clot,) cerebral hemisphere. This sort of blood clot, which is often fatal, is caused by blood vessels in the brain haemorrhaging..
1-Thrombosis: formation of a compact mass composed of elements of circulating blood inside a vessel or heart cavity, this compact mass is called Thrombus.
2- Clot: a mass of blood elements formed in stagnant blood.
3- Embolism: the process of impaction of embolus in narrow vessels. Embolus is insoluble substance circulating in blood stream.
4-Ischemia: decrease blood supply to apart of tissue due to occlusion of its artery.
5-Infarction:formation of an infarct, that is, an area of tissue death (necrosis) due tosudden ischemia.
showing a blood clot (thrombus, dark red), blood clot can block or reduce the blood supply, will lead to tissue death (infarction)
- lung showing an area of tissue death (infarction) caused by an embolism. The dead tissue is at lower centre. A pulmonary embolism is a blockage in one of the branches of the pulmonary artery, which carries blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen.
-the alveolar walls in the infarct area are thinned and their cellular structures are lost and fibrous septa only remains. the alveolar spaces contain intact and haemolysed red cells and heart failure cells.
- Rest of lung shows CVC.
-the infarct is pale red, normal area is darker.
- In the infarct zone the normal structures are lost, but the glomerulioutlines, tubules and B.V are homogenous pink shadows
Atherosclerosis(artery wall thickens, hardening caused by the formation of plaqueswithin the arteries)
Lesion initial in intema, have soft yellow accumulaton of lipid ,machrophages, foam cells (macrophages with ingested oxidized LDL),lymphocytes
A theroma:A fatty deposit in the intima(inner lining) of an artery. Appear white to whitish yellow color.
Atheroma in aorta lead to Local (dilatation) swelling of artery cause aneurysm is thin The wall of artery and lumin is filled by thrombus
Atheroma in aorta lead to Local (dilatation) swelling of artery cause aneurysm is thin The wall of artery and lumin is filled by thrombus .
This is hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis, which most often appears in the kidney in patients with malignant hypertension. The arteriolar wall is markedly thickened and the lumen is narrowed