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1. Why do developmentalists consider themselves scientists? 2. Does life get better or worse as we grow older? 3. At what age do we stop changing?. Chapter 1– Introduction. The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e. 1. Infancy 2. Early Childhood 3. Middle Childhood

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chapter 1 introduction

1. Why do developmentalists consider themselves scientists?

2. Does life get better or worse as we grow older?

3. At what age do we stop changing?

Chapter 1– Introduction

The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e

7 stages of development

1. Infancy

2. Early Childhood

3. Middle Childhood

4. Adolescence

5. Emerging Adulthood

6. Adulthood

7. Late Adulthood

7 Stages of Development
defining development
Defining Development

The scienceof human development…

seeks to understand how and why people—all kinds of people, everywhere, of every age—change over time.

1 science
1. Science
  • developmental study is a science….
    • theories
    • data
    • analysis
    • critical thinking
    • sound methodology
    • Understand the “how” and “why”
2 diversity
2. Diversity
  • studying all kinds of people
    • young and old
    • rich and poor
    • every ethnicity, background
    • sexual orientation
    • What is universal? What is unique?
3 connections between change and time
3. Connections Between Change and Time
  • Changing or remaining the same over time
    • transformations
    • consistencies of human life
      • beginning to end
        • understanding each segment of life

Each stage is better understood by remembering the whole life, and, conversely, the whole life is understood best by knowing each segment.

slide7

Understanding How and Why

  • Five Basic Steps of the Scientific Method
            • Begin with curiosity.
            • Develop a hypothesis.
            • Test the hypothesis.
            • Draw conclusions.
            • Report the results.
the nature nurture debate

Nature

  • Nurture
    • health and diet of the embryo’s mother
    • family
    • school
    • community
    • society
    • Can we really ask, “How Much?”
The Nature-Nurture Debate
critical and sensitive periods

A critical period is a time when certain things ________________ for normal development.

A sensitive period is when a particular development occurs __________________.

Critical and Sensitive Periods
observing changes over time

Dynamic-Systems Theory

A view of human development as an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the physical and emotional being and between the person and every aspect of his or her environment, including the family and society.

Observing Changes Over Time

“…every moment of life affects all others.”

the life span perspective
The Life-Span Perspective

“…developmentalists are acutely aware of the reciprocal connections between one moment in life and another… leading to five principles that are useful for understanding any age of human life…”

multidirectional 1
Multidirectional(1)

Change occurs in every direction

you are affected by many forces!

physical health, intellectual growth, and social interaction

up, down, stable or erratic

multicontextual 2
Multicontextual (2)

“…humans develop in dozens of contexts that profoundly affect their development…”

    • physical surroundings
    • family patterns
      • Urie Bronfenbrenner
  • Social context
    • historical
    • socioeconomic
multicontextual 21

Ecological-Systems Approach

    • (Urie Bronfenbrenner)
    • a leader in understanding ecological systems approach
      • he believed that we need to examine all systems surrounding the development of each person
        • microsysems
        • exosystems
        • macrosystems
Multicontextual (2)
ecological systems approach
Ecological-systems approach
  • microsysems
    • a person’s immediate surroundings
  • exosystems
    • local institutions, such as schools and churches
  • macrosystems
    • larger social setting, including cultural values, economic polices, and political processes
the historical context
The Historical Context
  • cohort
    • people born within a few years of one another
      • these people are affected by the same
        • values
        • events
        • technologies
        • culture
multicultural 3
Culture—

set of values, assumptions, and customs as well as physical objects such as clothing, housing, etc.

includes all decisions people make

is dynamic, supportive

Multicultural (3)
ethnicity race and culture
Ethnicity, Race, and culture
  • ethnic groups
      • share certain attributes
        • ancestral heritage (customs and traditions)
        • national origin
        • (country of birth)
        • religion
        • culture
        • language
    • ethnic categories arise from history, sociology, and psychology, not from biology
ethnicity race and culture1
Ethnicity, Race, and culture
    • Race
      • a distorted concept, no clear-cut racial groups (1970’s census: white/black/other)
  • -What racial categories have been added?

For your racial profile report? Well, sir, my mother was part Panamanian, part Jamaican. My dad was part Ukrainian, part Puerto Rican. I hope that helps.

multidisciplinary 4
Multidisciplinary (4)

“…a broad array of disciplines and cross-cutting topics… each person develops simultaneously in body, mind, and spirit…”

Development is divided into three domains;

  • Biosocial –
  • Cognitive –
  • Psychosocial –
plasticity 5
Plasticity (5)
  • The possibility to change:
    • human traits can be molded
      • yet maintaining durability of identity
      • culture and upbringing affect both aspects of plasticity
      • Genes and other biological influences
    • provides hope and realism
      • hope = changes is possible
      • realism = each developing person must build on what has come before
the life span perspective1

Mirror neurons- Cells in an observer’s brain that respond to an action performed by someone else in the same way they would if the observer had actually performed it.

The Life-Span Perspective
  • “We need to keep in mind that the future is not something we simply enter, the future is also something we help create.”
    • Paul Baltes(Founder of lifespan developmental study)