PART I: The Basics What are the four purposes of stage lighting? What are the three elements of stage lighting? Who are the three team members responsible for stage lighting?
The Purposes of Stage Lighting Visibility – The audience has to be able to see the action. Emphasis – Lighting can direct the audience’s attention. Mood – Lighting can set the tone or indicate a change in mood. Logic – Lighting sets time of day, directional lighting from real light sources (sunlight, moonlight, lamplight.)
The Elements of Stage Lighting Intensity – How bright is the light? Color – What color is the light? Distribution – Where is the light and what is its shape?
Lighting for the Theater The Lighting Designer designs the placement, color, and intensity of lighting. The Master Electrician creates the lighting by hanging and focusing the lights. He is assisted by a team of Electricians and Gaffers. The Light Board Operator executes the lighting effects during the show.
The Lighting Designer The Lighting Designer designs the overall look of the lighting including: Areas Colors Special Effects The Lighting Designer must balance two demands: • The practical purpose of lighting (making sure actors and set can be seen, the logic of the script) • The artistic purpose of lighting (creating tone, mood, effects, etc.)
The Master Electrician The Master Electrician and the team of Gaffers create the hang and focus. • Hang – the placement and proper connecting of the lighting to the light grid. • Focus – the focusing of each instrument in the proper area
The Light Board Operator The Light Board Operator executes the lighting effects during the show. • Operate the light board and oversees all lighting instruments. • Follows the cuesheet. • Reports to the Stage Manager.
Instruments Lighting instruments (not lights) come in many sizes and shapes. Each has a specific purpose. • LED – Light Emitting Diode (digitally controlled for lighting/color mixing within instrument) • PAR Can – Provides a beam of direct light; cannot be adequately focused; harsher light (concert lighting). • Strip Light – A row of lighting to wash a general area; may be used as footlights. • Work Lights (Clip Lights) – Used for safety; not for “show” lighting. LED Light PAR Can
PART II: Equipment What are the main types of lighting instruments? What is the purpose/use of each one? What are the parts of a lighting instrument?
Instruments Lighting instruments (not lights) come in many sizes and shapes. Each has a specific purpose. • Cyc Light – Projects light onto cyc • Fresnel – 6” and 8”. Provides an even light over a wide area. • ERS (Ellipsoidal Reflector Spotlight) – Focuses a more narrow beam of light at a smaller area. • Follow Spot – similar to an ERS but with more motion control; often free-standing and manually operated FRESNEL ERS FOLLOW SPOT
Parts of an Instrument • BarnDoor – Attaches to the front of an instrument to focus the beam externally. • C-Clamp – Used to attach the instrument to a batten • Connector (3 Pin or Twist-Lock) • Gel – Colored plastic sheeting to adjust light color. • Gobo – Metal cut-out to project a shape through light (used w/ERS only) • Housing – The metal casing of the light. • Lamp (not light) – The “bulb” • Roundel – Colored glass lens that covers a light (used w/Strip Lights) • SafetyCable – Secures instrument to batten • Shutter – Panels adjusted inside the light to focus the beam internally • Twofer – Used to cable two instruments to the same power source • Yoke – C-Shaped metal bar that attaches Housing to C-Clamp.
Parts I-II: Review • What is meant by “logical” lighting? • What is meant by “distribution” of lighting? • Who is responsible for hanging and focusing the lights? • Which instrument is most commonly used for providing a wide area of unfocused light? • What main function does an ERS have that a fresnel does not? • How are LEDs fundamentally different than other theatrical lights? • What is the difference between a “barn door” and a “shutter”? How are they the same? • What is a theatrical light bulb called?
PART III: Hang and Focus on a Grid / Safety What safety procedures must be followed when working with lighting? What are the types of lighting by location and purpose? What special lighting effects can be achieved? What are the parts of a grid? How do I read and create a light plot? What are the elements of focus? What is the “Rule of 45°”?
Lighting Safety and Procedures Wear gloves. Do not touch the housing, lens, or lamp of an instrument until it is completely cool. When working on ladder, tools must be clipped to belt. Never work on lighting alone! Disconnect instrument before changing the lamp. Check cables for wear Always disconnect cables by the connector; never by the cable. Always gaffe down cables that could be a trip hazard. Carry a C-Wrench / Channel Lock ¼ turn tighten once the C-Clamp touches the pipe
Quiz PART I • What is meant by “emphasis” in lighting? • What three elements of lighting can the designer control? • Which instrument is most commonly used for providing a wide area of unfocused light? • What main function does an ERS have that a fresnel does not? • What is one tool should you have with you when working on lights? • What rule do you need to remember when changing a lamp? • What is one important safety rule when working on lights? • True/False: A gobo is used to change the color of an instrument. • True/False: Gels are used with LEDs. • True/False: Most instruments in the Kell Theater are LED. PART II: Number your paper 11-30 and identify the items set up in the theater. NO TALKING! 11-30. BONUS: Who assists the Master Electrician?
Hang and Focus In order to understand lighting, you must understand where instruments are placed, how they are connected, how they are powered, and how they are focused.
Hang and Focus The Stage and Types of Light • Area – an area of the stage to be lit by an instrument • Backlight – light coming from behind the actor • CurtainWarmer – lights used during preshow to light the closed main drape • FillLight – light used to “fill” in dark spaces between areas • FloodLight – light used to “wash” an entire area • House Light – lighting in audience areas • Key Light – a specifically lit point used for adding emphasis (ex. On an actor’s face or a prop) • Practical – a working light embedded in the set such as a streetlamp • Sidelight – light coming from the wings • Special – a light that is used for a special effect • Spotlight – a light focused on a specific person or area (more broad than a key light) • Work Light – light used for safety during hang and focus, preshow and rehearsal
Lighting Effects • Black Light – For neon and glow effects. • Gobo Rotators / Loops – For creating movement in shadows thrown by gobos. • Scrim – A wide-woven mesh fabric that can be painted. When lit from in front, it is opaque. When lit from behind, it becomes transparent. • Strobe – Flashing lights; must be used sparingly. Audiences must be notified.
Hang and Focus The Grid and Equipment • Batten – A metal pipe that holds instruments • Electric – A row of dimmer connections • Gaffe (Tape) – to tape down loose cables • Grid – All battens/electrics combined • Hang – Place and connect instruments • InstrumentSchedule – a detailed list of all instruments, their type, wattage, color, and dimmer • LightPlot – A diagram of all lights placed • Tree – A free standing metal structure for hanging lights
1 The Kell Grid 4 6 5 3 2
Hang and Focus Focus Terms • Beam (Angle) – The area of intense, effective light coming from an instrument from 100% to 50%. It is expressed by an angle in degrees, ex. 20° • Bleed – Colored light that spills from its area of focus into other areas • Bounce – Indirect light reflected off of floors and walls. • Field(Angle) – The area of all light emitted from 10%-50% of maximum intensity. It is expressed by an angle in degrees, ex. 20° • Flood – To fill an area with bright light. • Spill – Similar to “bounce”; an area outside of the intended focus area that is illuminated by an instrument; for area lighting, the designer tries to minimize spill • Throw – A specific distance that an instrument can illuminate effectively; it is determined by the size of the instrument. • Wash – General illumination to cover an entire playing space.
Quick Review • What is area light? • How many lighting areas are there usually? • What is a practical? Give an example. • What is the difference between wash light and flood light? • What is one disadvantage to using a strobe light? • What is a batten? • What is the difference between a batten and an electric? • How many main electrics does Kell have? • What information is on an instrument schedule? • What is an instrument’s “beam”? • What is an instrument’s “throw”? • What is the difference between “bounce” and “spill”?
PART IV: The Light Board What are the basic functions of a light board? How is light controlled through the board? What is an instrument schedule? What is a cue sheet?
The Light Board • Blackout – to bring all instruments to 0 instantly • Bump – to increase the intensity of an instrument or area • Channel – A circuit channel that can handle multiple dimmers • Crossfade – to bring down one area while bringing up another • Cue (CueSheet) – a lighting change expressed by number, channel/sub, intensity, timing, and prompt; a cue sheet contains all the cues for a show • Dim/Dimmer – to control an instrument; essentially a socket; one instrument may be plugged into one dimmer unless a “two-fer” is used • DMX – A digital protocol that allows the console to speak to the instruments • Fade – to slowly decrease the intensity of instruments • Ghost – to allow the faintest amount of light to come from an instrument; or the afterglow of a light that has been taken to 0. • Light Board (Panel) – Also called the “console”; the operation panel for the lighting • Master – Controls all other dimmers, channels, and submasters • Patch – to assign a dimmer to a channel • Preset – a designers cheat sheet; shows the general area and instruments on the light plot • Submaster – A circuit channel that can bundle multiple channels • Slider – the knob that controls channels, subs, and masters
Lighting Flow Chart POWER SOURCE / CIRCUIT INSTRUMENT CONNECTOR / TWO-FER DIMMER CHANNEL SUBMASTER CUE MASTER
Quick Review • What is a ghost light? • What does an instrument connect directly to? • What control slider must be up on the light board for anything to happen? • What does it mean to “patch” a dimmer? • Put these light board controls in order: submaster – dimmer – master – channel • About how long does total blackout take in our theater? • How do you perform a crossfade on the light board?
“There’s only color and light . . .” • Stephen Sondheim from Sunday in the Park with George
PART V: Color and Light • What are the primary and secondary colors of light? • How do colors in light mix on white and colored surfaces? • What are the four different types of color Modification? Additive, Subtractive, Reflective, Intensifying
Color in Light Color works differently in light than it does in pigment. Primary Light Colors: Red, Blue and Green Secondary Light Colors: Yellow, Magenta, Cyan (light blue) All Colors Combined Make WHITE
Color in Pigment Primary Pigment Colors: Red, Blue and Yellow Secondary Pigment Colors: Orange, Green, and Purple All Colors Combined Make BLACK
Color in Pigment COPY AND LABEL
Pigment: Secondary Colors Combine two primaries to create a secondary: = = = + + +
Color In Light The Light Color Mixing Triangle
Color in Light Primary Light Colors: Red, Green, Blue Secondary Light Colors: Yellow, Cyan, Magenta All Colors Combined Make WHITE
Color Mixing in Light Combining two colored light sources is considered “Additive” mixing. Using a colored filter over a white light source is called “Subtractive” mixing because you are taking away all other colors from the white light to create your color. Tip: Combining two “Subtractive” light sources creates progressively darker light. Example: a green gelled light mixed with a blue gelled light will create a blue-green light, but it would be darker than if two green or blue light sources were crossed.
Color Modification COLOR MODIFICATION occurs when a pigmented surface is lit with a colored light source. When adding light to a pigmented surface, remember these rules: Reflection: If a white surface is lit with a colored light, it will reflect that color. Intensification: If a colored surface is lit with a light of the same color, that color is intensified or darkened.
Color Modification COLOR MODIFICATION occurs when a pigmented surface is lit with a colored light source. When adding light to a pigmented surface, remember these rules: Additive Mixing: If a white surface is lit with a mix of colored lights, the lights will mix on the surface according to light mixing rules, i.e. – red + green = yellow. Subtractive Mixing: If a colored surface is lit with a colored light, it will mix according to pigment mixing rules, i.e – blue surface + yellow light = green.
Color Modification: Reflection Colored Light on White Surface INCIDENT LIGHT REFLECTED LIGHT AUDIENCE SURFACE
Color Modification: Reflection Colored Light on White Surface ? INCIDENT LIGHT REFLECTED LIGHT AUDIENCE SURFACE
Color Modification: Reflection Colored Light on White Surface RED INCIDENT LIGHT REFLECTED LIGHT AUDIENCE SURFACE
Color Modification: Reflection White Light on Colored Surface INCIDENT LIGHT REFLECTED LIGHT AUDIENCE SURFACE
Color Modification: Reflection White Light on Colored Surface ? INCIDENT LIGHT REFLECTED LIGHT AUDIENCE SURFACE