Fetal Pig Dissection Daily Homework & Guiding Questions
Dissection of the Fetal Pig - Introductory Preparation GQ #1 1. How many units are there in the manual? Which units have over six pages? 2. Using the anatomical directional terms written on page 4, determine which terms refer to... a)towards the head, b) towards the back, c) towards the toes, d) towards the middle. 3. What is the genus and species name for the domestic pig? What 2 characteristics are seen in all mammals? 4. A mammal that has 2 or more types of teeth has _______ dentition. 5. Pigs are considered to be even-toed ungulates. What other animals have similar settings? 6. What is the typical life span for a fetal pig? How many lbs. could the domestic pig weigh? How many offspring can a pig have? 7. How have pigs been useful subjects for humans other than for consumption (eating)?
GQ #2Unit 1 – External Features:Intro To Your Pig Name 3 important functions of the skin for your pig. What are the two layers of the skin? Name the four main sections of the pig. Another name for the nostrils are __________. What function does the nasal cavity serve? Does your pig have any teeth? Look inside and check. The third eyelid is called a(n)_______. What purpose does it serve? *Try to find this structure, you may need to make a small incision starting from the inner corner of the eye. Another name for the external ears is/are _____ and the openings is called the ______.
The trunk of your pig can be divided into the ______ and ______. • On the abdomen, what do you notice is present? What is the name for these structures? How many pairs are there? 10. What was the umbilical cord attached to? How far should you cut the umbilical from the abdomen? (Make the cut.) How many blood vessels do you see? How many of these are arteries? How many are veins? Does the blood from the fetus ever mix with the mother's? 11. Another name for the caudal opening of the digestive tract is _________________. 12. Following the directions on page 12, determine if your pig is a male or a female and be sure the correct name you've chosen is written on you bag. Males have a sac structure called a ________________ vs. females having _________________.
GQ #3- Unit 2 – The Skeleton • What does bone consist of? What makes bones hard? • What is the function of the bone? • Name the three types of joints. • Why can’t we use the fetal pig to study bones? • What part makes up the axial skeleton? • How many vertebral bones compose the cervical and thoracic areas. How do pigs differ with humans? • How many vertebral bones make up the lumbar and the sacral area in pigs? How do humans differ? • Name all the bones that make the cranium. • How many bones are facial? • How many ribs do pigs have? How do false ribs differ from floating ribs? • Name all the bones that make up the appendicular skeleton.
GQ #4– Unit 3 – The Muscles • How many types of muscle tissue are there? Name them. Which types are voluntary and which ones are involuntary? • What muscles have striations? • Do muscles push or pull parts of the body? • When starting your dissection, what do you need the string for? • Your first incision needs to be SHALLOW and start at the ______ and continue up the _______. • Your second cut is along the ________. • The third cut is laterally across the _____ and along each____. • What do you need to do at the wrist? • How does your cut differ in male vs. female pig?
GQ #4– Unit 3 – The Muscle 10. The following are responsible for what kinds of movements? Abductors, extensors, and constrictors. 11. The 2 adductor muscles of the shoulder are the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor. Identify them on your pig and ID/name the opposing abductors. 12. The triangular shaped muscle in the shoulder is called the ________. 13. The flexors of the upper arm include the ____ and ____. 14. The extensor of the upper arm is the _____. 15. In the neck, what are the functions of the following muscles? Masseter, Brachiocephalicus, Splenius (Identify and locate these muscles in your pig.) 16. Which muscles of the pig do we get bacon? 17. Which muscles do we get smoked ham from? (Fig. 14)
GQ #5- Respiratory System (Ch.5) • How many lobes are labeled in Fig.16 (p.27)? Name these lobes. • How does the trachea differ from the larynx? • What function does cilia and the rings of the cartilage serve? • List the following structures in order from the largest to the smallest: bronchioles, lungs, alveoli, bronchi, secondary bronchi • How many lobes are there for the right lung? Left lung? Why do you think there is a difference? • Locate/identify the pulmonary arteries & pulmonary veins. What color is each vessel? • What two cavities are separated by the diaphragm? • When the diaphragm contracts, is it moving up or down? Does this cause an inhaling or an exhaling reaction?
GQ #6- Unit 6 – Digestive System • Name the five structures you need to identify in the pig’s mouth. (Fig.18) Make a cut on each side of the jaw to the mouth to open wider. See pg. 31 • What function does saliva serve? • Is the soft palate toward the front or the back of the mouth? • What purpose does the epiglottis serve? • How many lobes is the liver divided into? Name each lobe. • The veins of the liver are called the _____________ system. • What substance is stored in the gall bladder? Where is this substance made? What purpose does it serve? • Name the tubular structure that emerges from the gallbladder that serves to allow bile to travel to the small intestine. • Name the 3 functions of the liver. • What are the 2 substances (digestive juices) released in the stomach? • Name the circular muscle that prevents food from passing back up the esophagus. • What is the name of the green substance found inside your pig’s stomach? • What function does the pyloric sphincter serve? • What function does the pancreas and the spleen serve? Are they both part of the digestive system? • Why is the pancreas considered to be a “dual function” organ?
GQ #6- Unit 6 – Digestive System • How long can the intestine be in your fetal pig? Name the divisions of the small intestine. Which one of the 3 segments is the shortest? Which is the longest? • “Material is prevented from passing prematurely into the large intestine (from the small intestine) by a sphincter known as the ________________________ valve. • What does the surface of the small intestine look like inside? What causes this appearance? • Name the three parts/regions of the large intestine. (not including the rectum and the anus, as mentioned in the dissection guide) • What purpose do the variety of bacteria play in the large intestine? (pg. 36)
Guiding Questions #7 • Which side of the heart pumps blood to the pulmonary circuit? Do these vessels carry oxygen rich or oxygen poor blood? What is the name of the membrane that surrounds & covers the heart? • Blood that has been fully oxygenated leaves the heart through ____________ and transported to the rest of the body. Which side of the heart is the tricuspid atrioventricular valve (AV) located? How is this valve different from the mitral valve? • Arteries and veins that enter and leave the a) kidneys b)liver are called __________ arteries and _________ veins. • Venous blood enters the heart through the _________. • Name the arteries that supply the brain. Where are the iliac and femoral vessels located? • Trace the circulation pathway throughout the body starting at the right atrium. When is the blood oxygenated & deoxygenated?
Guiding Questions #8 – Urinary System • What is the function of the kidneys? What are the functional units found within the kidneys? • Remove the left kidney. Cut longitudinally. Identify the three regions and name them. (see Fig. 32 on p.45) • Locate & identify the tubular structures that a) emerges out of the kidneys b) emerges from the bladder. • Name the glands located on the anterior surface of the kidney. What does this gland release? Locate & identify:Cortex, Medulla, Renal pelvis, Renal arteries & veins, Ureter, Renal pyramid (attempt to view), Bladder, Pubis
Guiding Quest .#9 – Reproductive System • How many ova can a pig release during ovulation? • Where are the ovaries located? • Name the structure that transports the egg from the ovary to the uterus. • During pregnancy, what structure is sealed? What purpose does this serve? • What do the testes produce? • What purpose does the scrotum serve? • Where are the bulbourethral glands located? Name the two other glands that are found in the male reproductive system. • Where are sperm cells stored after being produced in the testes?
How is the central nervous system different from peripheral? • What purpose does the meninges serve? Name the three layers of tissue that make up the meninges. (use your text if necessary) • How are gyri different from sulci? • Name the structure that separates the two hemispheres of the brain. • Where do I have to look to see the cerebral cortex? • How is the cerebellum different from the cerebrum? • Which structure is more inferior, the medulla oblongata or the pons? • If we dissected and removed the brain how would it be cut? What structure will you be able to see easily once you have made this cross section? What function does this structure serve? See pg. 51) • How many total cranial nerves come out of the brain? • How is gray matter different from white matter? Which one is observed in the cerebral cortex? Guide Ques.#10 – Nervous System
Homework 5/17 • Do a Search on line for the Best Fetal Pig Dissection site. Be sure that the site has the following features: • All systems covered that are in our Manual • Clear, well-labeled images & diagrams • Some sort of quiz/assessment *Print out the 1st page of the site and attach it to the “Online Exercise” Assignment we did in class. From the Dissection Manual: • Do Guiding Question Set #1 & Intro. Quest. Pg. 6 • Do Guiding Question Set #2 & Quest. on pg. 9
Homework 5/18 • Read Unit 2 “The Skeleton” in the Dissection Manual (pgs. 11-16) and Do: -Guiding Question Set #3 -Quest. #1-6 on Pg. 16 in the Dissection Manual
Homework 5/21 &5/22 • Read Unit 3 “The Muscles” in the Dissection Manual (pgs. 17-24) and Do: -Guiding Question Set #4 -Quest. #1-5 on Pg. 24 in the Dissection Manual
Homework 5/23 (Wed.) • Read Unit 5 “The Respiratory System” in the Dissection Manual (pgs. 27-29) and Do: -Guiding Question Set #5 -Quest. #1-5 on Pg. 29 in the Dissection Manual
Homework 5/24 (Thurs.) • Read Unit 6 “The Digestive System” in the Dissection Manual (pgs. 31-36) and Do: -Guiding Question Set #6 -Quest. #1-5 on Pg. 36 in the Dissection Manual
Homework 5/24 -5/25 (Fri.) • Read Unit 7 “The Circulatory System” in the Dissection Manual (pgs. 37-43) and Do: -Guiding Question Set #7 -Quest. #1-6 on Pg. 43 in the Dissection Manual
Homework 5/30 & 5/31 (Fri.) • Work on images sets #1-4 • Share with ALL group members (e-mail) • Be sure all labels are correct -Guiding Question Sets #1 - #7 should be complete
Homework 6/4 (Mon.) • DO Guiding Quest. Set #8 (read unit 8) • Work on Images Sets #1-5 • Be sure labels are correct & Images are clear
Homework 6/5 (Tues.) • Read Units 8 & 9 • Do Guiding Quest. Set #8 & #9 • Be sure to also do the guidebook Questions on Pgs. 45 & 47 **ALL Makeups must be done by Tomorrow or you will receive a “0”. Lunch, 6th period, and After School
Homework 6/6 (Wed.) • Read Unit 10- The Nervous System • Do Guiding Quest. Set #10 • Be sure to also do the guidebook Questions on Pg.53