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Choosing Contexts and Experiments that Help Students Make Connections in Chemistry RET Program Summary. Brian Corry Summer 2012/13. Designing Curriculum Units that Help Students Make Connections in Chemistry RET Program Summary. Brian Corry Summer 2012/13. My background.

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slide1

Choosing Contexts and Experiments that Help Students Make Connections in ChemistryRET Program Summary

Brian Corry

Summer 2012/13

designing curriculum units that help students make connections in chemistry ret program summary

Designing Curriculum Units that Help Students Make Connections in ChemistryRET Program Summary

Brian Corry

Summer 2012/13

my background
My background
  • Arrowhead High School
    • Hartland, WI
    • AP Chemistry
    • General Physics and AP Physics
  • Procter & Gamble
    • Cincinnati, OH
    • Researcher, Drying and Particle Formation
  • University of Illinois
    • Champaign, IL
    • BS Chemistry
presentation outline
Presentation Outline
  • Summary of RET Experiences and Research
  • Connecting the research to chemistry education / instructional model
  • Design criteria for curriculum that helps students make connections
  • Curriculum Unit Example
ret program
RET Program
  • Research Experience for Teachers
    • University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee
    • Supported by NSF
    • Objective: collaborate with MS / HS science teachers to improve the quality of science education
my faculty mentor
My Faculty Mentor
  • Dr. Alan Schwabacher
    • UWM
    • PhD, Columbia
    • Organic Chemistry
    • Research focuses on mimicking the selective binding of biological molecules
slide8

Slow

Cu2+, Fast

p-nitrophenol

bis(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate (BNPP)

bis(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate (BNPP)

p-nitrophenol

slide9

Michaelis-Menten Kinetics

Cu2+, Fast

bis(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate (BNPP)

p-nitrophenol

slide12

pKa2 = 4.96

pKa1 = 0.30

pKa = 2.79

Catalyst?

Rate

Hydrolysis of a phosphate diester

Hydrolysis of BNPP

pKa = 7.16

Biochemistry

Kinetics / Catalysis

Acid / Base

Yellow

slide14

pKa2 = 4.96

pKa1 = 0.30

pKa = 2.79

Catalyst?

Rate

Hydrolysis of a phosphate diester

Hydrolysis of BNPP

pKa = 7.16

Biochemistry

Analytical / Spectroscopy

Kinetics / Catalysis

Acid / Base

Yellow

slide15

Synthesis of TNPP

10 g BNPP = $315

10 g NaBNPP = $1500

Synthesis of BNPP

Hydrolysis of BNPP

Biochemistry

Analytical / Spectroscopy

Kinetics / Catalysis

Acid / Base

slide16

TNPP

50 g = $27

1st time: 53% yield

2nd time: 70% yield

250 g = $36

BNPP

1st time: 46% yield

2nd time: 52% yield

$400

slide17

Hydrolysis of BNPP

Biochemistry

Analytical / Spectroscopy

Kinetics / Catalysis

Acid / Base

slide18

Extraction / Purification

TLC / Polarity

Organic Synthesis

NMR / Characterization

Synthesis of TNPP/BNPP

Hydrolysis of BNPP

Biochemistry

Analytical / Spectroscopy

Kinetics / Catalysis

Acid / Base

slide21

Rate is not first order…

…if you ignore ionic strength.

outcomes
Outcomes
  • Chemistry 582
    • More effective synthetic route for BNPP
    • Students make their own reagents
    • Michaelis-Menten kinetics (not yet?)
  • AP Chemistry
    • Access to expensive materials
    • Phosphate esters
    • PNP in Beer’s Law activity
    • BNPP to study kinetics/catalysis
slide33

“When a school subject is taught for which there is a professional counterpart, there should be a conceptual connection to post-secondary studies and to the practice of that subject in the real world.”

  • National Research Council. (2009). Engineering in K-12 education: Understanding the status and improving the prospects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
standard chemistry education
Standard Chemistry Education

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Structure

Content

Content

Content

Content

Context

Context

Context

Context

Chemistry

Expected Outcome

Content / Context

standard chemistry education1
Standard Chemistry Education

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Structure

Content

Content

Content

Content

Context

Context

Context

Context

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Actual Outcome

Content

Content

Content

Content

Context

Context

Context

Context

which outcome do we want
Which outcome do we want?

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Outcome 1

Content

Content

Content

Content

Context

Context

Context

Context

Chemistry

Outcome 2

Content / Context

unit expectations
Unit Expectations

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Structure

Content

Content

Content

Content

Context

Context

Context

Context

Chemistry

Expected Outcome

Content / Context

course expectations
Course Expectations

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Structure

Content

Content

Content

Content

Context

Context

Context

Context

Chemistry

Expected Outcome

Content / Context

alternative model
Alternative Model

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Structure

Content

Content

Content

Content

Context

Chemistry

Expected Outcome

Content / Context

alternative model1
Alternative Model

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Structure

Content

Content

Content

Content

Context

Chemistry

Expected Outcome

Content / Context

alternative model2
Alternative Model

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Structure

Content

Content

Content

Content

Context

Chemistry

Expected Outcome

Content / Context

important design consideration
Important Design Consideration

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Structure

Content

Content

Content

Content

Context

Chemistry

Expected Outcome

Content / Context

important instructional consideration
Important Instructional Consideration

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Structure

Content

Content

Content

Content

Context

Chemistry

Expected Outcome

Content / Context

slide45

http://chemistry.beloit.edu/modules.html

These 2-4-week modules start with relevant real-world questions and develop the chemistry needed to answer them. In the process, students model how chemistry is actually done and discover connections between chemistry and other sciences, technology, and society.

other curriculum materials
Other curriculum materials

ACS

CLUE

Living by Chemistry

context example nh 3
Context Example: NH3
  • Bonding and structure
  • IMFs and Properties
  • Reactions and Stoichiometry
    • Haber Process
    • Acid-base / Complex Ions
  • Kinetics
  • Equilibrium
  • One problem: Data and experimentation (Haber)
traditional how is dna built
Traditional: How is DNA built?

Introductory Activity

traditional how is dna built1
Traditional: How is DNA built?

Introductory Activity

alternative what does dna have to do and what about its structure allows it to do this
Alternative: What does DNA have to do?(and what about its structure allows it to do this?)

Introductory Activity

slide64

Driving Question

Why did nature choose those bases and pair them that way?

Questions

Investigations

Explanations

What do base pairs do (statically) in DNA?

Structure of DNA polymers

“Rungs” of the ladder

What must each “rung” do?

Ladder

Code information

Space the rails evenly

Hold the rails together

slide65

Driving Question

Why did nature choose those bases and pair them that way?

Questions

Investigations

Explanations

What do base pairs do (statically) in DNA?

Structure of DNA polymers

“Rungs” of the ladder

What must each “rung” do?

Ladder

Code information

Space the rails evenly

Hold the rails together

Why not A/G and T/C?

slide66

Purines

Pyrimidines

slide67

Driving Question

Why did nature choose those bases and pair them that way?

Questions

Investigations

Explanations

What do base pairs do (statically) in DNA?

Structure of DNA polymers

“Rungs” of the ladder

What must each “rung” do?

Ladder

Code information

Space the rails evenly

Hold the rails together

Why not A/G and T/C?

Structural models / “rung” building

Uneven spacing of ladder rails

How do they hold together?

Structural models

slide69

Driving Question

Why did nature choose those bases and pair them that way?

Questions

Investigations

Explanations

What do base pairs do (statically) in DNA?

Structure of DNA polymers

“Rungs” of the ladder

What must each “rung” do?

Ladder

Code information

Space the rails evenly

Hold the rails together

Why not A/G and T/C?

Structural models / “rung” building

Uneven spacing of ladder rails

How do they hold together?

Structural models

Hydrogen bonds

Why not A/C and T/G?

dna base pairing applet
DNA Base Pairing Applet

http://chemmac1.usc.edu/java/bases/basepairs.html

slide71

Driving Question

Why did nature choose those bases and pair them that way?

Questions

Investigations

Explanations

What do base pairs do (statically) in DNA?

Structure of DNA polymers

“Rungs” of the ladder

What must each “rung” do?

Ladder

Code information

Space the rails evenly

Hold the rails together

Why not A/G and T/C?

Structural models / “rung” building

Uneven spacing of ladder rails

How do they hold together?

Structural models

Hydrogen bonds

Why not A/C and T/G?

Structural models / pairing applet

No H-bond match up

What do base pairs do (dynamically) in DNA?

Replication process

slide73

Driving Question

Why did nature choose those bases and pair them that way?

Questions

Investigations

Explanations

What do base pairs do (statically) in DNA?

Structure of DNA polymers

“Rungs” of the ladder

What must each “rung” do?

Ladder

Code information

Space the rails evenly

Hold the rails together

Why not A/G and T/C?

Structural models / “rung” building

Uneven spacing of ladder rails

How do they hold together?

Structural models

Hydrogen bonds

Why not A/C and T/G?

Structural models / pairing applet

No H-bond match up

What do base pairs do (dynamically) in DNA?

Replication process

Hold together and break apart

How do they break apart?

Replication animations

slide74

http://www.wiley.com/college/pratt/0471393878/student/animations/dna_replication/http://www.wiley.com/college/pratt/0471393878/student/animations/dna_replication/

slide75

Driving Question

Why did nature choose those bases and pair them that way?

Questions

Investigations

Explanations

What do base pairs do (statically) in DNA?

Structure of DNA polymers

“Rungs” of the ladder

What must each “rung” do?

Ladder

Code information

Space the rails evenly

Hold the rails together

Why not A/G and T/C?

Structural models / “rung” building

Uneven spacing of ladder rails

How do they hold together?

Structural models

Hydrogen bonds

Why not A/C and T/G?

Structural models / pairing applet

No H-bond match up

What do base pairs do (dynamically) in DNA?

Replication process

Hold together and break apart

How do they break apart?

Replication animations

DNA helicases

slide76

Driving Question

Why did nature choose phosphates?

Questions

Investigations

What does that piece of the chain have to do?

Structure of DNA polymers

slide78

Driving Question

Why did nature choose phosphates?

Questions

Investigations

Explanations

What does that piece of the chain have to do?

Structure of DNA polymers

Link things in the DNA chain.

What type of bonding behavior is required?

Discussion

The unit in that space has to be able to link at least two times

What elements / groups could do this?

Brainstorming

Yes: O, S, N, P, As, molecule

No: H, Halogens

Nature uses phosphates. Let’s learn about those and assess some of the alternatives later.

What is a phosphate?

slide80

Driving Question

Why did nature choose phosphates?

Questions

Investigations

Explanations

What does that piece of the chain have to do?

Structure of DNA polymers

Link things in the DNA chain.

What type of bonding behavior is required?

Discussion

The unit in that space has to be able to link at least two times

What elements / groups could do this?

Brainstorming

Yes: O, S, N, P, As, molecule

No: H, Halogens

Nature uses phosphates. Let’s learn about those and assess some of the alternatives later.

What is a phosphate?

Drawing LDS

Common oxyanion with resonance forms, conjugate base of H3PO4

What is phosphoric acid?

Working with LDS

slide82

Driving Question

Why did nature choose phosphates?

Questions

Investigations

Explanations

What does that piece of the chain have to do?

Structure of DNA polymers

Link things in the DNA chain.

What type of bonding behavior is required?

Discussion

The unit in that space has to be able to link at least two times

What elements / groups could do this?

Brainstorming

Yes: O, S, N, P, As, molecule

No: H, Halogens

Nature uses phosphates. Let’s learn about those and assess some of the alternatives later.

What is a phosphate?

Drawing LDS

Common oxyanion with resonance forms

What is phosphoric acid?

Working with LDS

Phosphate group with a hydrogen attached to three oxygens

How acidic is phosphoric acid?

Titration curve

slide84

Driving Question

Why did nature choose phosphates?

Questions

Investigations

Explanations

What does that piece of the chain have to do?

Structure of DNA polymers

Link things in the DNA chain.

What type of bonding behavior is required?

Discussion

The unit in that space has to be able to link at least two times

What elements / groups could do this?

Brainstorming

Yes: O, S, N, P, As, molecule

No: H, Halogens

Nature uses phosphates. Let’s learn about those and assess some of the alternatives later.

What is a phosphate?

Drawing LDS

Common oxyanion with resonance forms

What is phosphoric acid?

Working with LDS

Phosphate group with a hydrogen attached to three oxygens

How acidic is phosphoric acid?

Titration curve

pKa values for three acidic hydrogens

How does pH affect ionization?

henerson hasselbalch
Henerson-Hasselbalch

Chemistry Version (what’s the pH?)

Biochemistry Version (what’s there at that pH?)

slide86

H3PO4

PO43-

HPO42-

H2PO4-

slide87

Driving Question

Why did nature choose phosphates?

Questions

Investigations

Explanations

What does that piece of the chain have to do?

Structure of DNA polymers

Link things in the DNA chain.

What type of bonding behavior is required?

Discussion

The unit in that space has to be able to link at least two times

What elements / groups could do this?

Brainstorming

Yes: O, S, N, P, As, molecule

No: H, Halogens

Nature uses phosphates. Let’s learn about those and assess some of the alternatives later.

What is a phosphate?

Drawing LDS

Common oxyanion with resonance forms

What is phosphoric acid?

Working with LDS

Phosphate group with a hydrogen attached to three oxygens

How acidic is phosphoric acid?

Titration curve

pKa values for three acidic hydrogens

How does pH affect ionization?

HH Calculations / Speciation Curve

pH determines extent of ionization

At pH=7, 50/50 H2PO4-/HPO42-

slide88

Driving Question

Why did nature choose phosphates?

Questions

How is DNA like phosphoric acid?

slide90

Driving Question

Why did nature choose phosphates?

Questions

Investigations

Explanations

How is DNA like phosphoric acid?

Structure of DNA polymers

Two hydrogens replaced by a carbon of the ribose

What is a phosphate ester?

slide91

Phosphoric Acid

Phosphate Ester

slide92

Driving Question

Why did nature choose phosphates?

Questions

Investigations

Explanations

How is DNA like phosphoric acid?

Structure of DNA polymers

Two hydrogens replaced by a carbon of the ribose

What is a phosphate ester?

Research

Phosphoric acid with carbon groups replacing the hydrogens

How many hydrogens are replaced?

slide93

Phosphoric Acid

Phosphate monoester

Phosphate diester

(like DNA)

Phosphate triester

slide94

Driving Question

Why did nature choose phosphates?

Questions

Investigations

Explanations

How is DNA like phosphoric acid?

Structure of DNA polymers

Two hydrogens replaced by a carbon of the ribose

What is a phosphate ester?

Research

Phosphoric acid with carbon groups replacing the hydrogens

How many hydrogens are replaced?

Research

It depends. There are phosphate mono-, di-, and tri- esters.

What does replacing hydrogen do to acidity?

Mono/di/tri ester consideration

slide95

Phosphoric Acid

Phosphate monoester

1

1

3

2

2

1

No acidic hydrogens

Phosphate diester

(like DNA)

Phosphate triester

slide96

Driving Question

Why did nature choose phosphates?

Questions

Investigations

Explanations

How is DNA like phosphoric acid?

Structure of DNA polymers

Two hydrogens replaced by a carbon of the ribose

What is a phosphate ester?

Research

Phosphoric acid with carbon groups replacing the hydrogens

How many hydrogens are replaced?

Research

It depends. There are phosphate mono-, di-, and tri- esters.

What does replacing hydrogen do to acidity?

Mono/di/tri ester consideration

Triesters have 0 acidic hydrogens. Diesters have 1, monoesters 2.

What are the relative pKas for each of these?

slide98

Phosphoric Acid

Phosphate monoester

1

1

3

pKa1 = 2.1

pKa3 = 12.3

pKa1 = 1.5

2

2

pKa2 = 6.3

pKa2 = 7.2

1

pKa = 1.3

No acidic hydrogens

Phosphate diester

(like DNA)

Phosphate triester

slide99

Driving Question

Why did nature choose phosphates?

Questions

Investigations

Explanations

How is DNA like phosphoric acid?

Structure of DNA polymers

Two hydrogens replaced by a carbon of the ribose

What is a phosphate ester?

Research

Phosphoric acid with carbon groups replacing the hydrogens

How many hydrogens are replaced?

Research

It depends. There are phosphate mono-, di-, and tri- esters.

What does replacing hydrogen do to acidity?

Mono/di/tri ester consideration

Triesters have 0 acidic hydrogens. Diesters have 1, monoesters 2.

What are the relative pKas for each of these?

Research

pKa1 ≈ 1-2 for all

What are the major species at pH = 7?

slide100

Phosphoric Acid

Phosphate monoester

1

1

3

pKa1 = 2.1

pKa3 = 12.3

pKa1 = 1.5

2

2

pKa2 = 6.3

pKa2 = 7.2

1

pKa = 1.3

No acidic hydrogens

Phosphate diester

(like DNA)

Phosphate triester

slide101

Driving Question

Why did nature choose phosphates?

Questions

Investigations

Explanations

How is DNA like phosphoric acid?

Structure of DNA polymers

Two hydrogens replaced by a carbon of the ribose

What is a phosphate ester?

Research

Phosphoric acid with carbon groups replacing the hydrogens

How many hydrogens are replaced?

Research

It depends. There are phosphate mono-, di-, and tri- esters.

What does replacing hydrogen do to acidity?

Mono/di/tri ester consideration

Triesters have 0 acidic hydrogens. Diesters have 1, monoesters 2.

What are the relative pKas for each of these?

Research

pKa1 ≈ 1-2 for all

What are the major species at pH = 7?

pKa, Calculations, graphs

Phosphate diesters are ionized at pH 7.

Where is the “A” in DNA?

slide103

Driving Question

Why did nature choose phosphates?

Questions

Investigations

Explanations

How is DNA like phosphoric acid?

Structure of DNA polymers

Two hydrogens replaced by a carbon of the ribose

What is a phosphate ester?

Research

Phosphoric acid with carbon groups replacing the hydrogens

How many hydrogens are replaced?

Research

It depends. There are phosphate mono-, di-, and tri- esters.

What does replacing hydrogen do to acidity?

Mono/di/tri ester consideration

Triesters have 0 acidic hydrogens. Diesters have 1, monoesters 2.

What are the relative pKas for each of these?

Research

pKa1 ≈ 1-2 for all

What are the major species at pH = 7?

pKa, Calculations, graphs

Phosphate diesters are ionized at pH 7.

Where is the “A” in DNA?

Discussion

DNA is not an “acid” at pH 7

slide104

Driving Question

Why did nature choose phosphates?

Questions

Investigations

Explanations

What does that piece of the chain have to do?

Structure of DNA polymers

Link things in the DNA chain.

What type of bonding behavior is required?

Discussion

The unit in that space has to be able to link at least two times

What elements / groups could do this?

Brainstorming

Yes: O, S, N, P, As, molecule

No: H, Halogens

Nature uses phosphates. Let’s learn about those and assess some of the alternatives later.

What is a phosphate?

Drawing LDS

Common oxyanion with resonance forms

What is phosphoric acid?

Working with LDS

Phosphate group with a hydrogen attached to three oxygens

How acidic is phosphoric acid?

Titration curve

pKa values for three acidic hydrogens

How does pH affect ionization?

HH Calculations / Speciation Curve

pH determines extent of ionization

At pH=7, 50/50 H2PO4-/HPO42-

slide105

Ether

Phosphate ester

Ester

Sulfate Ester

Citrate(?) Ester

Arsenate Ester

slide106

Driving Question

Why did nature choose phosphates?

Questions

What’s the importance of being ionized?

Energetics

Solubility

Kinetics

the role of experiments
The role of experiments

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Design 1

Content

Content

Content

Content

Context

Context

Context

Context

Design 2

Questions

Investigations

Explanations

How acidic is phosphoric acid?

Titration curve

pKa values for three acidic hydrogens

questions
Questions?

corry@arrowheadschools.org