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Interest Grabber. Section 21-1. Animal, Vegetable, or Mineral?. Have you ever eaten mushrooms? Perhaps you have seen them growing from the ground in a forest or yard. Perhaps you have seen them for sale in a supermarket. 1. What are some things that you know about mushrooms?

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animal vegetable or mineral

Interest Grabber

Section 21-1

Animal, Vegetable, or Mineral?
  • Have you ever eaten mushrooms? Perhaps you have seen them growing from the ground in a forest or yard. Perhaps you have seen them for sale in a supermarket.
  • 1. What are some things that you know about mushrooms?
  • 2. Would you classify mushrooms as an animal, a plant, or something else? Give reasons for your answer.
slide2

Section Outline

Section 21-1

  • 21–1 The Kingdom Fungi

A. What Are Fungi?

B. Structure and Function of Fungi

C. Reproduction in Fungi

D. How Fungi Spread

slide3

Nuclei

Cell wall

Cytoplasm

Cross wall

Nuclei

Cytoplasm

Cell wall

Hyphae Structure

Section 21-1

Hyphae With Cross Walls

Hyphae Without Cross Walls

slide4

Figure 21-2 The Structure of a Mushroom

Section 21-1

Fruiting body

Hyphae

Mycelium

fungi and you

Interest Grabber

Section 21-2

Fungi and You
  • Believe it or not, fungi play an important role in your life. The bread you eat, the salad you make, and the medicine that you take when you are sick may include various types of fungi.
  • 1. List as many examples of fungi that you can.
  • 2. How are fungi helpful to humans?
  • 3. How are fungi harmful to humans?
slide6

Section Outline

Section 21-2

  • 21–2 Classification of Fungi

A. The Common Molds

1. Structure and Function of Bread Mold

2. Life Cycle of Molds

B. The Sac Fungi

1. Life Cycle of Sac Fungi

2. Yeasts

C. The Club Fungi

1. Life Cycle of Club Fungi

2. Diversity of Club Fungi

3. Edible and Inedible Mushrooms

D. The Imperfect Fungi

slide7

Deuteromycota

Zygomycota

Ascomycota

Basidiomycota

Concept Map

Section 21-2

Fungi

are divided into the phyla

includes

includes

includes

includes

Common molds

Sac fungi

Club fungi

Imperfect fungi

slide8

Zygospore (2N)

Sporangium

Gametangia

Spores (N)

Sporangium

Zygospore (2N)

+ Mating type (N)

Stolons

Spores (N)

- Mating type (N)

Sporangiophore

Rhizoids

Figure 21-5 The Life Cycle of Rhizopus

Section 21-2

FERTILIZATION

MEIOSIS

Sexual Reproduction

Asexual Reproduction

Diploid

Haploid

slide9

Fruiting body (N + N)

Hyphae (N + N)

Ascus (N + N)

Zygote (2N)

Hyphae (N)

Asci

Gametangia

+ Mating type (N)

- Mating type (N)

Ascus

Conidia (N)

8 Ascospores (N)

Hypha (N)

Conidiophore

Hypha (N)

Figure 21-7 The Life Cycle of an Ascomycete

Section 21-2

Diploid

Haploid

FERTILIZATION

HYPHAE FUSE

MEIOSIS

Sexual Reproduction

Asexual Reproduction

slide10

Fruiting body (N + N)

Gills lined with basidia

Gills

Cap

Stalk

Button

Base

Basidia (N + N)

Secondary mycelium (N + N)

Primary mycelium (N)

Zygote (2N)

- Mating type (N)

+ Mating type (N)

Basidiospores (N)

Figure 21-8 The Life Cycle of a Basidiomycete

Section 21-2

FERTILIZATION

HYPHAE FUSE

Haploid

Diploid

MEIOSIS

which fungi are they

Interest Grabber

Section 21-3

Which Fungi Are They?
  • You may recall that decomposers break down the remains of other organisms. Parasites are organisms that harm other organisms while living on or within them. Some live in close contact and form a mutually beneficial association with other species.
slide12

Interest Grabber continued

Section 21-3

Classify each of the following fungi as decomposers, parasites, or organisms that live in a mutually beneficial relationship with another species.

  • 1. A network of fungi covers the roots of fir trees. The trees provide the fungi with food, and the fungi help the tree roots absorb water.
  • 2. Fungi living on growing corn stalks destroy corn kernels.
  • 3. Mushrooms growing on a fallen log obtain food from the decaying wood.
slide13

Section Outline

Section 21-3

  • 21–3 Ecology of Fungi

A. All Fungi Are Heterotrophs

B. Fungi as Decomposers

C. Fungi as Parasites

1. Plant Diseases

2. Human Diseases

3. Other Animal Diseases

D. Symbiotic Relationships

1. Lichens

2. Mycorrhizae

slide14

Lichen Structure

Section 21-3

Densely packed hyphae

Layer of algae/ cyanobacteria

Loosely packed hyphae

Densely packed hyphae

video 1

Video

Fungi

Video 1
  • Click the image to play the video segment.
internet

Go Online

Internet
  • Interactive test
  • Articles on fungi
  • For links on fungi go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-6211.
  • For links on asexual reproduction, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-6212.
section 1 answers

Interest Grabber Answers

  • 1. What are some things that you know about mushrooms?
  • Possible answers: Mushrooms grow from the soil in dark, damp places. They are eaten by animals, including people. They are soft.
  • 2. Would you classify mushrooms as an animal, a plant, or something else? Give reasons for your answer.
  • Students will likely say that mushrooms should be classified as something other than plants or animals. Possible reasons: Mushrooms grow in soil, as plants do, but they aren’t green. Mushrooms aren’t animals because they don’t move from place to place as animals do.
Section 1 Answers
section 2 answers

Interest Grabber Answers

  • 1. List as many examples of fungi that you can.
  • Mushrooms, mold, yeast, mildew, truffles
  • 2. How are fungi helpful to humans?
  • They are sources of food and are used in making bread, wine, and medicines.
  • 3. How are fungi harmful to humans?
  • Some are poisonous and can cause illness or death.
Section 2 Answers
section 3 answers

Interest Grabber Answers

Section 3 Answers
  • Classify each of the following fungi as decomposers, parasites, or organisms that live in a mutually beneficial relationship with another species.
  • 1. A network of fungi covers the roots of fir trees. The trees provide the fungi with food, and the fungi help the tree roots absorb water.
  • Organisms that live in a mutually beneficial relationship with another species
  • 2. Fungi living on growing corn stalks destroy corn kernels.
  • Parasites
  • 3. Mushrooms growing on a fallen log obtain food from the decaying wood.
  • Decomposers
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