Ergonomics for the "General Practitioner" Cindy Burt, MS, OTR/L, CPE Injury Prevention Program Manager UCLA
Learning Objectives • Define ergonomics • Identify high return interventions • Sell ergonomics
History of Ergonomics • Industrial Revolution • Steel industry (shovels) • Henry Ford • Assembly line design • Frank and Lillian Gilbreth • Micro-motion studies (i.e. today’s surgical techniques)
History of Ergonomics • World Wars • Aircraft, weapon design • Cold War • Nuclear power plants • Today • Industry, hospitals, offices, product design
Ergonomics Today Matching the job, work tools, and workplace to the worker.
Employee Concerns Comfort Fatigue Injuries Job satisfaction Decreased boredom Decreased stress Reasonable workloads Employer Concerns Worker’s comp costs Productivity Errors Products Profit Ergonomics
Results of Poor Ergonomic Design • Discomfort and fatigue • Injuries and accidents
Musculoskeletal Disorders • Necks • Backs • Arm and hand • Knee and foot
Decreased efficiency Decreased productivity Errors Poor Ergonomics
Poor Ergonomic Design • Turnover • Absenteeism • Job avoidance
Pick your fights Sell your service How Do I Get Started?
What Should I Look For? Awkward postures Repetition Force
Where Should I Look? Offices and Telecommuters
Where Should I Look? Laboratories
Where Should I Look? Hospitals
Where Should I Look? Facilities
Where Should I Look? Shops
Where Should I Look? Grounds
Where Should I Look? • Housekeeping • Dining • Housing • Student stores
What Can Ergonomics Do? • ↓ discomfort • ↓ accidents and injuries • ↑ accuracy • ↑ efficiency • ↑ satisfaction • ↑ job retention
How Do I Start? Identify problems • Complaints of discomfort • Symptom surveys • Near misses • Accidents • Injuries • Errors • High turnover
What Tools Can I Use? • Anthropometry tables • Body discomfort maps • Hazard check lists • NIOSH Lifting Equation • Washington Ergonomics Lifting Calculator
Measurement of people Match size and strength with work environment and tools What is Anthropometry?
Average is not good enough Need to consider reaches and clearances Why Does Match Matter?
Central 90 percent Disregard extreme body sizes Try to fit males/females from 20-65 yrs Who Should We Match?
Design so the small woman can reach, and the large man can fit. S. Konz What is the Golden Rule?
Design so the small woman can reach, and the large man can fit. S. Konz What Rule Would You Use Here?
Design so the small woman can reach, and the large man can fit. What Rule Would You Use Here?
How low can we place materials these workers have to reach? How high can a shelf be placed holding work materials? Accommodating Reach Golden Rule: Place objects between knee and shoulder height.
How Do I Make a Quick Impact? Computer workstations • On-line training • Ergo evaluators
How Do I Make a Quick Impact? Reduce lifting • Lifting equipment • Job redesign
Manual Materials Handling • Golden rule • Eliminate lifts • When you can’t • Keep it off the floor • Reduce lifts • Conveyors, dollies • Adjust work flow
Making a Difference If they have to lift, teach them how! • High risk groups first • Then campus-wide
How Should You Lift? Stoop Squat Semi-squat
Stoop • Can get close to load • Less effort and energy than squatting • Fast ….but it increases strain on low back
Squat Limits strain on low back ….but it is difficult to keep load close ….requires increased effort and energy ….and it is inefficient
Semi-Squat Lift • Less work • Preferred for lifting heavy objects on occasional basis
Squat and Semi-Squat Lifts • More protective of back • Preferred by injured workers
There are no “right” or “correct” ways to sit, stand or lift.... However, there are more and less demanding ways!
Staggered stance Keep it close Keep It Simple
Build a Bridge Feet first Keep It Simple
Build a Team • Ergonomist • Safety professionals • Health care team • Risk management • Rehab counselors • Facilities/Design • Purchasing • Managers • Employees
It’s all about dollars… • Average cost /CTS claim = $37,552 or… • Average cost /back injury = $47,954 or… 1,565 pizzas (1 pizza/week for 30 years) WC Research Institute for CA Claims
Prove Your Value! For every direct dollar spent • OSHA estimates • $3-7 indirect dollars spent • Liberty Mutual estimates • $2-5 indirect dollars spent
MSD Costs UCLA statistics
Cost Justification Benefits of Ergonomics
It’s the Law!CA Code of Regulations 5110 Repetitive Motion Injuries • Scope • 2 injuries within 12 months • Identical work activity • Response • Worksite evaluation • Exposure control and training • Training requirements • Review ergonomics program • Exposures • Symptoms/injuries and reporting guidelines • Methods used to minimize repetitive motion injuries