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Ergonomics for the "General Practitioner"

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  1. Ergonomics for the "General Practitioner" Cindy Burt, MS, OTR/L, CPE Injury Prevention Program Manager UCLA

  2. Learning Objectives • Define ergonomics • Identify high return interventions • Sell ergonomics

  3. History of Ergonomics • Industrial Revolution • Steel industry (shovels) • Henry Ford • Assembly line design • Frank and Lillian Gilbreth • Micro-motion studies (i.e. today’s surgical techniques)

  4. History of Ergonomics • World Wars • Aircraft, weapon design • Cold War • Nuclear power plants • Today • Industry, hospitals, offices, product design

  5. Ergonomics Today Matching the job, work tools, and workplace to the worker.

  6. Employee Concerns Comfort Fatigue Injuries Job satisfaction Decreased boredom Decreased stress Reasonable workloads Employer Concerns Worker’s comp costs Productivity Errors Products Profit Ergonomics

  7. Results of Poor Ergonomic Design • Discomfort and fatigue • Injuries and accidents

  8. Musculoskeletal Disorders • Necks • Backs • Arm and hand • Knee and foot

  9. What Causes These Injuries?

  10. Decreased efficiency Decreased productivity Errors Poor Ergonomics

  11. Poor Ergonomic Design • Turnover • Absenteeism • Job avoidance

  12. Pick your fights Sell your service How Do I Get Started?

  13. What Should I Look For? Awkward postures Repetition Force

  14. Where Should I Look? Offices and Telecommuters

  15. Where Should I Look? Laboratories

  16. Where Should I Look? Hospitals

  17. Where Should I Look? Facilities

  18. Where Should I Look? Shops

  19. Where Should I Look? Grounds

  20. Where Should I Look? • Housekeeping • Dining • Housing • Student stores

  21. What Can Ergonomics Do? • ↓ discomfort • ↓ accidents and injuries • ↑ accuracy • ↑ efficiency • ↑ satisfaction • ↑ job retention

  22. How Do I Start? Identify problems • Complaints of discomfort • Symptom surveys • Near misses • Accidents • Injuries • Errors • High turnover

  23. What Tools Can I Use? • Anthropometry tables • Body discomfort maps • Hazard check lists • NIOSH Lifting Equation • Washington Ergonomics Lifting Calculator

  24. Measurement of people Match size and strength with work environment and tools What is Anthropometry?

  25. Average is not good enough Need to consider reaches and clearances Why Does Match Matter?

  26. Central 90 percent Disregard extreme body sizes Try to fit males/females from 20-65 yrs Who Should We Match?

  27. Design so the small woman can reach, and the large man can fit. S. Konz What is the Golden Rule?

  28. Design so the small woman can reach, and the large man can fit. S. Konz What Rule Would You Use Here?

  29. Design so the small woman can reach, and the large man can fit. What Rule Would You Use Here?

  30. How low can we place materials these workers have to reach? How high can a shelf be placed holding work materials? Accommodating Reach Golden Rule: Place objects between knee and shoulder height.

  31. How Do I Make a Quick Impact? Computer workstations • On-line training • Ergo evaluators

  32. How Do I Make a Quick Impact? Reduce lifting • Lifting equipment • Job redesign

  33. Manual Materials Handling • Golden rule • Eliminate lifts • When you can’t • Keep it off the floor • Reduce lifts • Conveyors, dollies • Adjust work flow

  34. Making a Difference If they have to lift, teach them how! • High risk groups first • Then campus-wide

  35. How Should You Lift? Stoop Squat Semi-squat

  36. Stoop • Can get close to load • Less effort and energy than squatting • Fast ….but it increases strain on low back

  37. Squat Limits strain on low back ….but it is difficult to keep load close ….requires increased effort and energy ….and it is inefficient

  38. Semi-Squat Lift • Less work • Preferred for lifting heavy objects on occasional basis

  39. Squat and Semi-Squat Lifts • More protective of back • Preferred by injured workers

  40. There are no “right” or “correct” ways to sit, stand or lift.... However, there are more and less demanding ways!

  41. Staggered stance Keep it close Keep It Simple

  42. Build a Bridge Feet first Keep It Simple

  43. Build a Team • Ergonomist • Safety professionals • Health care team • Risk management • Rehab counselors • Facilities/Design • Purchasing • Managers • Employees

  44. It’s all about dollars… • Average cost /CTS claim = $37,552 or… • Average cost /back injury = $47,954 or… 1,565 pizzas (1 pizza/week for 30 years) WC Research Institute for CA Claims

  45. Prove Your Value! For every direct dollar spent • OSHA estimates • $3-7 indirect dollars spent • Liberty Mutual estimates • $2-5 indirect dollars spent

  46. MSD Costs UCLA statistics

  47. Cost Justification - Injuries

  48. Cost Justification Benefits of Ergonomics

  49. Cost Justification - Regulatory

  50. It’s the Law!CA Code of Regulations 5110 Repetitive Motion Injuries • Scope • 2 injuries within 12 months • Identical work activity • Response • Worksite evaluation • Exposure control and training • Training requirements • Review ergonomics program • Exposures • Symptoms/injuries and reporting guidelines • Methods used to minimize repetitive motion injuries