“BEFORE THE WAR” CAUSES OF THE WAR IMPORTANT PEOPLE. ANTEBELLUM SOCIETY AND CAUSES OF CIVIL WAR. Unit Terms. Antebellum Yankees Cotton gin Rebels Tariff Sectionalism Abomination Secede States’ rights Nullification Yeoman farmer Emancipate Popular Sovereignty Abolitionist.
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“BEFORE THE WAR” CAUSES OF THE WAR IMPORTANT PEOPLE ANTEBELLUM SOCIETY AND CAUSES OF CIVIL WAR
Unit Terms • Antebellum Yankees • Cotton gin Rebels • Tariff Sectionalism • Abomination Secede • States’ rights Nullification • Yeoman farmer Emancipate • Popular Sovereignty • Abolitionist
ANTEBELLUM SOUTH AND THE ECONOMY • Agricultural Economy • FIRST TOBACCO • THEN COTTON • Slavery Changed the Economy • Economy became dependent on Slavery
FARMERS • PLANTERS- 100 + acres, 20+ slaves, minority of the population (3000 out of 600,000),plantations • YEOMAN FARMERS- few acres, no slaves, family farms- grew crops for themselves, majority of population • Only ¼ of the population owned slaves • 44% POP= SLAVES
The Cotton Boom • Valuable crop: easy to sell and paid high prices • Cotton exports increased as did the South’s dependence on cotton- to BRITAIN • Growing cotton meant the need for a larger slave force • Slave Costs – Between $300 and $1000 • Short staple cotton- inland • Long staple cotton- islands
“King Cotton” • Before the cotton gin: slaves could only clean 1 pound of cotton a day • After the cotton gin: slaves could clean 50 pounds of cotton a day • Result: more cotton being grown and more workers needed
Eli Whitney and the Cotton Gin • COTTON GIN- 1793 • SEPARATES SEED FROM THE FIBER- roller w/teeth • 2x AS FAST AS SLAVES COULD DO IT • “GIN” = engine • ELI WHITNEY
Why slavery? Why the South? The South's economy was dependent upon slavery. 100 years of living with the institution had made it an integral part of Southern life and culture. The South demanded that the North recognize its right to have slaves as secured in the Constitution. Georgia Stories
Missouri Territory The people in the Missouri territory wanted to join the United States. The people in this territory wanted slavery to be legal. Prior to Missouri, the Union had 22 states. 11 favored slavery and 11 opposed it Abolitionists in the North did not want slavery to expand Abolitionist- a person opposed to slavery and in favor of ending it.
Missouri joined the union as a slave state and Maine joined as a non slave state The Missouri Compromise also stated that the area north of the 36 -30 parallel would only be allowed to join the United States as a free state, while the land below the 36-30 parallel would join as slave states
MISSOURI COMPROMISE • 2 PART SOLUTION REGARDING SLAVERY AND NEW STATES • HENRY CLAY CAME UP WITH IDEA • MAINE- ADDED AS A FREE STATE, MISSOURI AS A SLAVE STATE • ENSURED EQUAL/FAIRNESS IN TERMS OF THE CONCEPT OF SLAVERY • In Congress, there had been 11 Free states and 11 Slave states. Now there were 12/12.
The Issue of Slavery • NO Slavery N of 36 degrees 30’ line of latitude • (40 degrees N lat is southern PA) • (30 degrees N lat is along the FL panhandle)
Tariffs • Tax on imports • Benefits US • Makes imported goods cost more- more is purchased from inside the country • North- high tariffs, help N industries • South- low tariffs, traded a lot w/ Britain sold cotton to/bought goods from Brit
Tariff of 1828 The Tariff of 1828 caused even more division in the country Tariff- tax on foreign goods The tariff was put in to place to protect northern factories from foreign competition The South was buying goods from Britain, which were cheaper than goods from the northern states. This Tariff would force the South to buy goods from the North
Tariff of Abomination- and effects on the south • 1-Fed Gov’t put tax on British goods (fabrics) • 2-They ended up costing more • 3-Americans didn’t buy them. • 4-British didn’t make as much, didn’t need as many raw goods (cotton) • 5-Southern states- source of cotton • 6-Sold less because Britain not buying as much • 7-Hurt southern economy
Tariff of 1832 Tariff of 1828 led the South to discuss nullification Nullification- argument that a state has a right not to follow a federal law By 1832 Congress slightly modified the tariff to appease the South The tariff was lowered to 35% The South was still very unhappy with the Federal government for taxing their main supply of goods
Response to the Tariffs The people of South Carolina planned to use force to stop federal tax collectors. President Andrew Jackson said he would use the army in South Carolina in an effort to collect this tariff This threat forced South Carolina to comply with federal law
Force Bill Jackson called on Congress to pass a Force Bill, giving him the authority to use force to collect taxes Congress did pass the Force Bill, but it also passed a bill to reduce tariffs over a ten year period The compromise bill satisfied South Carolina and post poned the crisis for a little longer
Regional/Sectional Differences • Sectionalism- loyalty to the concerns of your own region rather than to the nation • Tariffs • States’ Rights • Western Expansion • Slavery
States’ Rights • One of the main issues between the North and the south was slavery • Also, the Southern States wanted to follow their own laws. They did not want federal laws to over rule the laws of the states. • Why would this not work? When in history did we decide that we needed a stronger federal government?
STATES RIGHTS 1- STATES’ RIGHTS- PRIVILEGES THAT STATES HAVE TO RUN THEMSELVES WITHOUT FEDERAL INTERFERENCE. HOW MUCH CONTROL SHOULD STATES HAVE IN THEIR OWN RULES AND LAWS? N- 1- FED LAWS RULE ALL, SUPREME COURT DECIDE ALL ISSUES, SECEDE ILLEGAL, NULLIFICATION NOT ALLOWED S- Constitution= contract by choice, can secede and nullify laws
Western Expansion • N- DISTRIBUTE FAIR PRICES, SELL TO MAKE $ FOR GOV’T, GOV’T HELPS PAY FOR EXPANSION • S- CHEAPLY GIVE OUT LAND, SHOULDN’T TAX TO PAY FOR EXPANSION
SLAVERY • N- illegal, keep escaped slaves • S- legal, N send back escaped slaves • Part of States’ rights
COMPROMISE OF 1850 • California asked to be admitted to the Union as a Free state. This would upset the balance in Congress. • HENRY CLAY AGAIN CREATED THIS • 4 parts: balance • 1-CA- ADMITTED AS A FREE STATE • 2-DC- ABOLISHED SLAVERY • 3-STRONGER FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW • 4-NM AND UT- COULD MAKE THEIR OWN DECISION ABOUT SLAVERY
The Fugitive Slave Act Part of the Compromise of 1850 Stated that all states must return slaves that have fled back to their owners Prohibited slave trade in Washington D.C
Reactions to the Compromise of 1850 • John C. Calhoun from S.C. warned that the Union would be no more if a better solution was not found. • He felt the South was being neglected for the Industrialized North.
Georgia Platform 1850- Georgia held a convention in Milledgeville to debate the Compromise of 1850 SECESSION NOT A SOLUTION TO PROTECT SLAVERY AND STATES’RIGHTS OUTLINE TO SUPPORT COMPROMISE WANTED TO KEEP THE UNION Georgia Platform- Proclamation by Georgia wanting the North to support the Fugitive Slave Act, and to stop trying to ban slavery in new states
Howell Cobb, Alexander H. Stephens, and Robert Toombs represented Georgia in Congress and wielded a great deal of political influence within the state Stephens’ arguments led to the Georgia Platform Their influence led to the Georgia Platform being accepted as a conditional acceptance of the Compromise of 1850 Georgia was credited with preventing war and secession
Kansas Nebraska Act • Similar to the Missouri Compromise-1854 • North and South argued over how slavery should be handled in the new states • Kansas and Nebraska were one large territory, they only became two states as part of a compromise • States would decide whether to be free or slave based on popular sovereignty. • Stephen Douglas from Illinois wrote the act, favored the concept of popular sovereignty
Kan Neb Act • Election held in Kansas • Anti slavery forces moved into Kansas to sway people to vote against slavery • Pro slavery forces also came up from Missouri • 1000’s from both sides tried to influence the vote
Bleeding Kansas Crisis in the territory, became known as Bleeding Kansas, 200 people killed in the violence. Kansas voted to be a slave state in 1857, but congress rejected the results and a new election was held. Abolitionists won second election. Had two legislatures for a time Kansas declared a free state and allowed to join the union in 1861
Dred Scott • Dred Scott v Sandford – Dred Scott filed a case in the Supreme Court trying to get his freedom and for his family as well. • Was born a slave in Virginia • Traveled with his master and lived in a free territory for ten years • Returned with the master’s widow to Missouri • So… should be a free man • 1846-went to court to get his freedom • Supreme Court ruled against him stating that he was not a U.S. citizen and didn’t have the right to sue-1857 • Southern slave owners saw this as a major victory • Abolitionists were furious over ruling
The Republican Party • 1854-The Republican Party was started by a group of Northern Democrats that were against slavery • Felt that slavery could no longer exist • Against the extension of slavery in territories • First Republican candidate was John Fremont from Savannah in 1856
ELECTION of 1860 • Republican Candidate: Abraham Lincoln • Platform: Prevent slavery expanding in the territories • Stated that the US could not remain half free and half slave • Northern Democratic Candidate: Stephen Douglas with Herschel Johnson (GA) as vice-presidential candidate • Platform: Popular sovereignty
Southern Democratic Candidate: John Breckenridge • Platform: Against popular Sovereignty • Constitutional Union Candidate: John Bell • Platform: Preserve the Union Lincoln won the election even though his name was not even on the ballot in the Southern states
ELECTION OF 1860 • DEBATES- 4 CANDIDATES, • 4 DIFFERENT PLATFORMS AND KEY ISSUES • ELECTION- FALL 1860 • INAUGURATION- MARCH 4, 1861 • LINCOLN ELECTED- popular vote, but not electoral vote • RESULTED IN: • SOUTHERNERS THAT THEY SHOULD LEAVE UNION, • NORTHERNERS- FED GOV’T WILLMOVE TO ABOLISH SLAVERY
Southern States Secede • South Carolina’s legislature voted (169 to 0) to secede just days after Lincoln was elected as President (Dec 20, 1860) • Georgia’s General Assembly calls for a state convention • Georgia’s capital at the time was Milledgeville • Each county sent delegates to Secession Convention (Jan) • Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida secede • Georgia’s legislature voted (208 to 89) to secede and became the independent “republic of Georgia” • Before Mr. Lincoln took his oath of office, Louisiana and Texas had also seceded from the Union. • Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee soon followed. Total of 11 states.
Confederate States of America • Representatives from the seceded states met in Montgomery, Alabama to start a new nation • The Confederate Constitution was writtenand allowed slavery • Jefferson Davis from Mississippi was elected as president • Alexander Stephens from GA was the vice-president (GA Platform- worked previously to stay w/Union- cooperationist) • Robert Toombs from GA was the new secretary of state • Georgia’s legislators ratified the Confederate Constitution and amended the GA constitution to show their allegiance
START OF THE WAR • Ft. Sumter- Charleston, SC, • first shots April 12, 1861