Dictionary Skills Grade 4 Lesson 2
Refer to a dictionary When you want to know: • What a word means • How to spell a word • How to pronounce a word • The part of speech for a word
Dictionary • Throughout the dictionary you will find many helpful resources along with the definitions, pronunciations, parts of speech, and spelling of the words. • We talked about some of these things last time.
In the Dictionary We talked about: • Cross References: See saxophone • Usage Guides: Informal Slang
New Words and New Definitions • The English Language is always growing and changing. • New words are added every year. • Old words often take on additional meanings.
New Entry Words • in.ter.net(in-tur-net) noun The electronic network that allows millions of computers around the world to connect together. We can access the internet on the school computers. • couch po.ta.to(kouch puh-tay-toh) noun (informal) Someone who spends most of his or her time watching television rather than being active.
New Additional Meanings mouse (mouss) noun 1. A small, furry animal with a pointed nose, small ears, and a long tail.2. A small control box that you use to move the cursor on your computer screen. rap (rap) 1.verbTo hit something sharply and quickly. 2. noun A type of song in which words are spoken in a rhythmical way to a music background.
Scholastic Children’s Dictionary • Now we’re going to take a closer look at this particular dictionary and what it has to offer.
Scholastic Children’s Dictionary • Contains several helpful resources. • At the beginning of the dictionary you will find: Pronunciation Guide How to Use This Dictionary Initials, Acronyms, and Abbreviations
Initials, Acronyms, and Abbreviations • An initial is a letter, usually followed by a period, that takes the place of a whole word. • An acronym is a group of initials that forms another word or phrase. • An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word, followed by a period.
Initials • F. Farenheit • T. Tablespoon • g. Gram
Acronyms • ASAP As Soon As Possible • NASCAR National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing • WWW World Wide Web • CIA Central Intelligence Agency
Abbreviations • Aug. August • min. minute • no. number • ft. foot
Scholastic Children’s Dictionary • Throughout this dictionary you will find Word Boxes. • Word boxes give you extra information about the origin or usage of a word.
Word Boxes • “About This Letter” • “Language Notes” • “Prefixes” • “Suffixes” • “Synonyms” • “Word History”
About This Letter Box • These boxes appear on the opening page of each new letter. In each one, you will find a fact about that letter or a spelling tip for words containing that letter’s sound.
Example Letter Box EeAbout E E is the most commonly used letter in the English language. In order of use, e is followed by t and then by a, i, s, o, n, h, r, d, l, u, c, m, f, w, y, p, g, b, v, k, j, q, x, and z.
Language Notes Box • These boxes tell you more information about the words and grammar that people use to talk and write.
Language Note Example • Aloha is the Hawaiian word for “love”, so when Hawaiians use aloha to greet someone or say goodbye, they are also wishing the person love. Hawaii’s nickname is the Aloha State.
Prefixes • A word part added to the beginning of a word or root to change the meaning.
Root Words • A word to which a prefix or suffix is added to make another word. • Root word war • Prefixpre prewar-before the war
Example Prefix Box • The prefix bi-adds one of the following meanings to a root word: 1. Twice every, as in bimonthly (twice every month). 2. Having two, as in bicuspid (a tooth having two points).
Suffixes • A syllable or syllables added at the end of a word or root that changes its meaning.
Example Suffix Box The suffix –est means “most” when added to a root adjective or adverb, as in hottest (most hot), biggest (most big), slowest (most slow). Sometimes the final consonant in the root word is doubled before the –est is added. Always look up the word if you’re not sure how to spell it.
Synonyms • A word that means the same or nearly the same as another word. The word rapid is a synonym for quick. The word naughty is a synonym for bad.
Example Synonyms Box • Synonyms:big Big can describe things, people, ideas, or anything else that has great size or importance: An elephant is a big animal. Large is often used in place of big and refers to anything greater than normal size or quantity: My mom runs a large business with a lot of employees.
Synonyms Box Continued Immensedescribes something so big that you can hardly measure or comprehend it. An immense snowstorm blanketed several states with deep snow. Enormous,like immense, means extremely big or large: He gave me an enormous hug. Hugemeans very large in scope or a very large amount. I had a huge meal.
Word History Boxes • These boxes tell you information about the history of the word.
Example Word History Box • Spanish explorers had never seen an alligatorbefore they came to the New World. When they encountered one, they thought it looked like a very large lizard. They called it el lagarto, Spanish for “lizard”. Later, when English settlers heard el lagarto spoken fast, they spelled what they heard as alligator.
Homophones Homophones are sometimes at the end of a definition. hair (hair) noun The mass of fine, soft strands that grow on your head or body or on the body of an animal. Hair sounds like hare.
Labeled Illustrations • Show you the details of objects defined in main entries. • Some of the labels in the illustrations are entry words, and others are not. • The labels that are not entry words are listed in the Index of Picture Labels on pages 663 and 664.
Reference Section • This section contains many helpful references including: Braille and American Sign Language Alphabet Grammar Guide Punctuation Guide Idioms Guide Map of the Continents Map of the World
Reference Section Flags and Facts: Countries of the World Map of the United States Map of U.S. Territories Map of Canada Facts About the 50 States Facts About U.S. Territories Presidents of the United States Measurement Tables
Great Resources • Take advantage of the great wealth of information found in dictionaries. • Use the Scholastic Children’s Dictionary to utilize all of the terrific features it offers to students.