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Biology II. Fungi. Introduction of Fungi. They are classified as eukaryotes (have a membrane bound nucleus) Fungi can be divided into two basic morphological forms: Yeasts Hyphae. Yeast. Unicellular fungi Reproduce asexually by blastoconidia formation (budding) or fission. Hyphae.

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introduction of fungi
Introduction of Fungi
  • They are classified as eukaryotes (have a membrane bound nucleus)
  • Fungi can be divided into two basic morphological forms:
    • Yeasts
    • Hyphae
yeast
Yeast
  • Unicellular fungi
  • Reproduce asexually by blastoconidia formation (budding) or fission
hyphae
Hyphae
  • Multicellular
  • Reproduce asexually and/or sexually
slide5

Most Fungi occur in the hyphae form as branching, threadlike tubular filaments

    • Lack cross walls (coenocytic)
    • Have cross walls (septate)
    • Clamp connections at the septa which connect the hyphae elements
common characteristics of fungi
Common Characteristics of Fungi
  • Heterotrophy-eat other organisms as food
    • Three major categories of heterotrophs
      • Saprophytes-Feed on dead tissue or organic waste
      • Symbionts- mutually beneficial relationship between a fungus and another organism
      • Parasites- feeding on living tissue of a host
        • Parasites that cause diseases are called pathogens
        • Some parasites are obligate parasites (require a living host)
        • Others are facultative or nonobligate(do not require a living host in order to survive)
common characteristics
Common Characteristics
  • Body Form
    • Unicellular
    • Filamentous-tube-like strands called hypha or hyphae
    • Mycelium- total of hyphae
    • Sclerotium=Hardened mass of mycelium that generally serves as an overwintering stage
    • Multicellular-such as mycelial cords, rhizomorphs, and fruit bodies (mushrooms)
common characteristics1
Common Characteristics
  • Fungus is often hidden from view
    • It grows through its food source, excretes extracellular digestive enzymes, and absorbs dissolved food
  • Indeterminate growth
common characteristics2
Common Characteristics
  • Spores- asexual (product of mitosis) or sexual (product of meiosis) in origin
  • Purpose of Spores
    • Allows the fungus to move to new food source
    • Resistant stage- allows fungus to survive periods od adversity
    • Means of introducing new genetic combinations into a population
common characteristics3
Common Characteristics
  • Vegetative phase of fungus is generally sedentary
  • Cell wall present, composed of cellulose and/or chitin
  • Food Storage- generally in the form of lipids and glycogen
  • Eukaryotes-true nucleus and other organelles present
common characteristics4
Common Characteristics
  • All fungi require water and oxygen
  • Fungi grow in almost every habitat imaginable, as long as there is some type of organic mater present and the environment is not too extreme
  • Diverse group, number of describer species is about 69,000 (estimated 1.5 million species total)
phylums of fungi
Phylums of Fungi
  • Phylum Zygomycota- common mold found on land
    • Reproduce by zygospores
    • Ex: Rhizopus- common bread mold
    • Contain root-like structures (rhizoids) to anchor in bread. Stolons on surface of bread.
phylum basidiomycota
Phylum Basidiomycota
  • Basidiomycetes- the club fungi, about 22,300 species
  • Includes mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs, shelf fungi, rusts, bird’s nest fungi and smuts
  • Characterized by perforate septatehypahe and the production of basidium (club) following sexual reproduction.