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THE NETHERLANDS AFTER 1945: TWO SILENT REVOLUTIONS AND ONE VIOLENT ONE? PowerPoint Presentation
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THE NETHERLANDS AFTER 1945: TWO SILENT REVOLUTIONS AND ONE VIOLENT ONE?

THE NETHERLANDS AFTER 1945: TWO SILENT REVOLUTIONS AND ONE VIOLENT ONE?

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THE NETHERLANDS AFTER 1945: TWO SILENT REVOLUTIONS AND ONE VIOLENT ONE?

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  1. THE NETHERLANDS AFTER 1945: TWO SILENT REVOLUTIONS AND ONE VIOLENT ONE? EIGHTH MEETING OF THE PhD COURSE PARADIGMS AND PROBLEM SHIFTS IN SOCIOLOGY WOUT ULTEE UNIVERSITY OF HAIFA JANUARY 6, 2013

  2. TWO SILENT REVOLUTIONS: THE BREAKDOWN OF RELIGIOUS PILLARS SINCE 1955 THE RISE OF THE LIBERTARIAN NETHERLANDS SINCE 1968 ONE VIOLENT REVOLUTION SINCE 2000: THE RISE OF ANTI-ISLAM

  3. IT IS AN EMINENT TASK FOR SOCIOLOGY TO DOCUMENT CHANGES IN THE SOCIETIES THEY HAPPEN TO BELONG TO CHANGES, WHETHER TAKEN AS CHANGES IN INEQUALITY, COHESION OR RATIONALIZATION AND TO ACCOUNT FOR THESE CHANGES WITH DESCRIPTION PERHAPS BEING MORE IMPORTANT THAN EXPLANATION

  4. WHEN PERFORMING THIS TASK SOCIOLOGY ENCOUNTERS OTHER ACADEMIC DISCIPLINES ETHNOLOGY WAS THERE BEFORE SOCIOLOGY AND LIKE ETHNOLOGY DEVELOPED THEORIES BY FIRST MAKING ETHNOGRAPHIES SO STEINMETZ EXHORTED (DUTCH) SOCIOLOGY BEFORE WORLD WAR 2 TO MAKE SOCIOGRAPHIES

  5. AFTER WORLD WAR 2 IN DUTCH SOCIOLOGY SOCIOGRAPHIES FOR LOCAL COMMUNITIES GAVE WAY TO STUDIES USING NATIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE STATISTICS AND TO THE ANALYSIS OF LARGE-SCALE DATA-SETS COLLECTED BY WAY OF QUESTIONNAIRES ON SAMPLES REPRESENTATIVE FOR THE WHOLE NETHERLANDS

  6. THE INTERNATIONAL FOLLOW-UP OF ENTHNOLOGY WAS CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY DUTCH ANTHROPOLOGY NEVER RECOVERED FROM THE LOSS OF THE DUTCH EAST INDIES AS ITS PRIME OBJECT OF STUDY BECAUSE IT DID NOT TEAM UP WITH DEVELOPEMNET STUDIES IT TURNED INTO SYMBOLIC ANTHROPOLOGY

  7. IN PRICIPLE ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY ARE PARALLEL FIELDS BUT WHILE SOCIOLOGY HAS AN ELABORATE IDEA OF PROBLEMS TO BE STUDIES AT LEAST DUTCH ANTHROPOLOGY DOES NOT DUTCH ANTHROPOLOGY HUNTS ESOTERIC TOPICS THEORETICALLY IT DEFENDS THAT PRE-INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES HAVE THEIR OWN RATIONALITY

  8. AMERICAN FUNCTIONALISM IN THE 1950s AIMED AT THEORETICAL AUTONOMY FOR SOCIOLOGY IN THE 1960s THIS GOAL WAS REJECTED BY, AMONG OTHERS, HOMANS HOMANS ADVOCATED THE REDUCTION OF SOCIOLOGY TO PSYCHOLOGY, ESPECIALLY TO SKINNERIAN BEHAVIORISM THIS PROGRAM DID NOT CATCH ON

  9. IN THE 1970S A REVIVAL OF MARXISM TOOK PLACE IN SOCIOLOGY IT AIMED FOR THEORETICAL AUTONOMY TOO WALLERSTEINS WORLD SYSTEMS THEORY CAME UP WITH INTERESTING ANSWERS TO AND RESEARCH ON WORLD-WIDE INCOME INEQUALITY

  10. GOLDTHORPE AT THE END OF THE 1970s PROVIDED AN EXEMPLAR FOR WHAT WAS CALLED CLASS ANALYSIS THIS PARADIGM IN THE FIELD OF SOCIETAL INEQUALITY LEAD TO ERIKSON’S AND GOLDTHORPE’S THE CONSTANT FLUX, A STUDY OF CLASS MOBILITY IN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES, FROM 1992 AND BREEN’S SOCIAL MOBILITY IN EUROPE FROM 2004

  11. IN THE 1990S THE PARADIGM OF CLASS ANALYSIS TRIED TO INCORPORATE RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY BEING SOME KIND OF FOLLOW-UP TO HOMANS’ REDUCTION OF SOCIOLOGY TO PSYCHOLOGY

  12. IN THE 1980S NEO-CLASSICAL ECONOMICS, IN EXISTENCE FOR ABOUT A CENTURY, STARTED DEALING WITH TOPICS IN THE SOCIOLOGY OF THE FAMILY A PRIME EXAMPLE IS A TREATISE ON THE FAMILY BY GARY BECKER

  13. IF I AM NEGATIVE I SAY THAT BECKER EXPLAINED WHY MARRIED WOMEN ARE LIKELY TO SPECIALIZE ON HOUSEWORK AT THE TIME MARRIED WOMEN WERE ENTERING THE LABOUR MARKET IN DROVES

  14. IN THE 1990s THE MARKET PARADIGM BECAME DOMINANT IN THE SOCIOLOGY OF RELIGION IT DEALT WITH THE INTERESTING QUESTION OF WHY THERE IS NO SECULARIZATON IN THE UNITED STATES BUT IT MISSED OUT ON FINDINGS FOR EUROPE

  15. IN THE FIRST DECADE OF THE THIRD MILLENIUM EVOLUTIONISM AS DEVELOPED BY DARWIN GAINED STRENGTH IN SOCIOLOGY IT GAINED STRENGTH IN THE FIELD OF RELIGION WITH DARWIN’S CATHEDRAL; EVOLUTION, RELIGION, AND THE NATURE OF SOCIETY FROM 2002 WRITTEN BY THE BIOLOGIST-ANTHROPOLOGIST DAVID SLOAN WILSON

  16. IT ALSO GAINED STRENGTH IN SOCIOLOGY IN THE FIELD OF INEQUALITY WITH LENSKI’S POWER AND PRIVILEGE FROM 1966 AND IN GENERAL SOCIOLOGY WITH LENSKI’S ECOLOGICAL-EVOLUTIONARY THEORY, PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS FROM 2006 EVOLUTIONISM GAINED ALSO ENTRANCE TO GENERAL SOCIOLOGY WITH W.G. RUNCIMAN’S A THEORY OF CULTURAL AND SOCIAL SELECTION FROM 2009 FOLLOWING UP ON THREE VOLUMES OF A TREATISE ON SOCIOLOGY FROM 1983, 1989, 1997

  17. THEN THERE IS THE EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGIST STEVEN PINKER IN 2011 PINKER PUBLISHED THE BETTER ANGELS OF OUR NATURE, THE DECLINE OF VIOLENCE IN HISTORY AND ITS CAUSES THIS BOOK FEATURES THE THEORY OF THE SOCIOLOGIST ELIAS THAT A MONOPOLIZATION OF A SOCIETY’S MEANS OF VIOLENCE BY THE STATE LOWERS VIOLENCE BETWEEN THE MEMBERS OF A SOCIETY, MAKING FOR OTHER FORMS OF CIVILITY TOO

  18. SHOULD SOCIOLOGISTS STUDY A TEXTBOOK EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY? YES WHY DO GIRAFFES HAVE LONG NECKS? NOT BECAUSE OF GETTING TO THE LEAVES OF TREES FOR FOOD THE REASON IS NOT NATURAL SELECTION, BUT SEXUAL SELECTION, THAT IS FIGHTS BETWEEN MALE GIRAFFES, AND MALES WITH THE LONGER NECK WIN LONG LEGS ARE A DISADVANTAGE WHEN DRINKING WATER

  19. IF SPECIES ADAPT TO THEIR ENVIRONMENT WHY DO POLAR BEARS ONLY LIVE ON THE NORTH POLE? AND WHY DO PENGUINS ONLY LIVE ON THE SOUTH POLE?

  20. HERE PLATE TECTONICS COMES IN ONCE THE EARTH CONSISTED OF ONE PLATE ON THE SPLINTER PLATE NOW MAKING UP ANTARTICA NO MAMMALS, BUT ONLY BIRDS EVOLVED ON THE SPLINTER PLATES NOW MAKING UP THE ARTIC AND ONCE TIED TO ANTARTICA BECAUSE OF CONTINENTAL DRIFT MAMMALS EVOLVED, WHILE LARGE BIRDS DIED OUT

  21. SEE DENNIS McCARTHY HERE BE DRAGONS HOW THE STUDY OF ANIMAL AND PLANT DISTRIBUTIONS REVOLUTIONIZED OUR VIEWS OF LIFE AND EARTH Oxford University Press 2010

  22. IN THE NEAR FUTURE SOCIOLOGISTS WILL HAVE TO DEAL WITH HISTORIANS HISTORICAL SOCIOLOGY IS A STRONG UNDERCURRENT IN MOST COUNTRIES IT SPEAKS AGAINST QUESTIONS REFERRING TO ONE COUNTRY AT ONE MOMENT AND FAVOURS THE STUDY OF SOCIETAL TRENDS

  23. THE QUESTION IS, OF COURSE, WHERE THE TRENDS TO BE STUDIED SHOULD BEGIN HERE SOCIOLOGY ENTERS THE FIELD OF HISTORY THE TWO DISCIPLINES MORE AND MORE OVERLAP ANYWAY EVEN IF SOCIOLOGY IS CONCERNED ONLY WITH THE CONTEMPORARY ITS FINDINGS TURN INTO FINDINGS ABOUT THE PAST SO THAT HISTORIANS WILL BE USING THEM

  24. THE SHIFT FROM QUESTIONS THAT INVOLVE A COMPARISON OF SOCIETIES, TO QUESTIONS THAT INVOLVES TRENDS WITHIN SOCIETIES MIGHT BE A FRUITFUL PROBLEMSHIFT AFTER ALL, IF INCOME INEQULATIES NOWADAY ARE SMALLER IN SCANDINAVIAN SOCIETIES THAN IN OTHER EUROPEAN SOCIETIES THAT MAY SUPPORT THE HYPOTHESIS THAT SOCIAL DEMOCRACY LOWERS INCOME INEQUALITIES BUT IT IS NOT TRONG SUPPORT SINCE THE SCANDINAVIAN COUNTRIES MAY HAVE BEEN RELATIVELY EGALITARIAN BEFORE THE ADVENT OF SOCIAL DEMOCRACY

  25. GENERAL THEORIES ABOUT SOCIETAL CHANGE NISBET’S MODERNIZATION THEORY FROM 1966 INDUSTRIAL AND DEMOCRATIC REVOLUTIONS MAKE FOR A DECLINE OF CLASSES AND RELIGIONS

  26. INGLEHART’S THEORY FROM 1971: REVOLUTIONS IN INDUSTRIAL AND DEMOCRATIC SOCIETIES ARE SILENT SOCIETIES DO NOT CHANGE BY ALL ITS INHABITANTS AT THE SAME POINT IN TIME GOING OVER TO OTHER BELIEFS AND ACTS SOCIETIES CHANGE BECAUSE THE NEW BIRTH COHORTS JOINING THE ADULTS POPULATION DIFFER FROM THE OLDER POPULATION MEMBERS GRADUALLY DYING OUT

  27. ANOTHER HYPOTHESIS: THE LAWS OF A COUNTRY FOLLOW THE GENERAL OPINION IN A COUNTRY YET ANOTHER HYPOTHESIS: EVERYTHING STARTED TO CHANGE IN 1968

  28. THE NETHERLANDS IN THE FIRST DECADES AFTER WORLD WAR 2 WAS NOT A CLASS SOCIETY IT WAS A SOCIETY IN WHICH THE PRINCIPLE DIVIDING LINES WERE DRAWN BY RELIGION FOUR MAIN GROUPS: ROMAN CATHOLICS PROTESTANTS, DIVIDED INTO REFORMED PROTESTANTS AND RE-REFORMED PROTESTANTS AND THEN PERSONS WITHOUT A RELIGION

  29. WHEN DID RELIGIOUS DIVIDING LINES BEGAN TO WASH OUT IN THE NETHERLANDS: AFTER 1968? OR ALREADY AFTER 1918, WHEN DEMOCRACY, IN THE SENSE OF UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE, CAME TO THE NETHERLANDS? RELIGIOUS DIVIDING LINES BECAME STRONGER AFTER 1918 AND THEY ALREADY BECAME LESS SHARP IN THE MID 1950s

  30. Log odds ratio’s for Protestants marrying Catholics in the Netherlands and two large Dutch municipalities time series of administrative data

  31. WHY FEWER RELIGIOUSLY MIXED MARRIAGES AFTER THE INTRODUCTION OF GENERAL SUFFRAGE? GENERAL SUFFRAGE DID NOT CAME ABOUT BECAUSE THE EXISTING POLITICAL PARTIES WANTED IT SO MUCH THERE WAS A COMPROMISE BETWEEN THE LABOUR PARTY AND THE CHRISTIAN PARTIES, AGAINST THE LIBERAL PARTIES

  32. THE POWER BALANCE IN DUTCH PARLIAMENT IN 1914-1918: THREE GROUPS OF ABOUT EQUAL SIZE, AND THEIR POSITION ON THE TWO MAIN ISSUES GENERAL FUNDING SUFFRAGE RELIGIOUS SCHOOLS SOCIALISTS STRONGLY MILDLY IN FAVOR IN FAVOR PROTESTANTS MILDLY STRONGLY +CATHOLICS IN FAVOR IN FAVOR LIBERALS AGAINST AGAINST

  33. WHO BELIEVES THAT SECULARITY WILL INCREASE WHEN SCHOOLS BECOME RELIGIOUS?! INDEED, IN THE NETHERLANDS CATHOLICS AND PROTESTANTS NOT ONLY HAD THEIR OWN PRIMARY SCHOOLS THEY ALSO FOUNDED OTHER PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATIONS

  34. CATHOLICS PROTESTANTS SOCIALISTS NEWSPAPER 1845 1872 1900 POLITICAL PARTY 1904 1878 1881 LABOR UNION 1909 1908 1893 UNIVERSITY 1923 1880 NEVER BROADCASTING ASSOCIATION 1925 1924 1925

  35. ODDS RATIO’S FOR BEING A CHURCH MEMBER OR NOT AND VOTING FOR A CONFESSIONAL PARTY OR NOT THE RELIGIOUS PARTIES NOT ONLY DECLINED BECAUSE OF FEWER RELIGIOUS PERSONS RELIGIOUS PERSONS BEGAN TO VOTE FOR NON-RELIGIOUS PARTIES 1946 63,7 1956 35,5 1967 25,1 1971 24,0 1972 28,6 1977 14,0 1981 21,7 1982 19,0 1986 7,8 1989 9,3 1994 13,6 1998 25,9

  36. * IN 1965 THE CATHOLIC NEWSPAPER BECAME INDEPENDENT OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH * IN THE EARLY 1970S THE SOCIALIST NEWSPAPER CLOSED DOWN AFTER A STRING OF ELECTORAL LOSSES * IN 1977 THE CATHOLIC PARTY MERGED WITH THE TWO LARGEST PROTESTANT PARTIES * IN 1982 THE SOCIALIST LABOUR UNION AND THE CATHOLIC LABOUR UNION MERGED * BUT ALREADY IN THE MID 1950s THE PILLARS GOT UNDERMINED BY MORE MIXED MARRIAGES

  37. IN SURVEYS CONDUCTED IN THE NETHERLANDS 1993, 1998, 2000, 2003 AND 2008 WE ASKED PERSON WHO STATED TO BE WITHOUT A RELIGION, BUT WHO HAD SAID TO HAVE BEEN RAISED IN ONE, AT WHAT AGE THEY NO LONGER CONSIDERED THEMSELVES TO BELONG TO THIS RELIGION TO THESE DATA WE APPLIED EVEN-HISTORY MODELS SOME RESULTS

  38. CHANGES IN THE CHANCES OF LEAVING CHURCH IN THE NETHERLANDS FOR THOSE WITH A HIGH (GREEN), MIDDLE (BLUE) AND LOW (RED) DIPLOMA

  39. CHANGES IN THE CHANCES OF LEAVING CHURHC FOR CATHOLIC (BLUE) REFORMED (GREEN) AND RE-REFORMED PERSONS (RED)

  40. TEMPORAL CHANGES IN THE CHANCES OF LEAVING CHURCH FOR REFORMED PERSONS (RED) AND HIGHLY EDUCATED PERSONS (BLUE)

  41. CHANGES IN THE CHANCES OF LEAVING CURCH FOR RE-REFORMED PROTESTANTS (BLUE) AND PERSONS WITH A LOW DIPLOMA

  42. SEX, DRUGS AND ROCK & ROLL SINCE 1968: THE LIBERTARIAN NETHERLANDS?

  43. PROSTITUTION AS WINDOW SHOPPING IN AMSTERDAM AND ALL-OVER THE NETHERLANDS COFFEESHOPS WHERE PEOPLE SMOKE HASH AND EAT SPACE CAKE THE NETHERLANDS AS A COUNTRY WHERE ABORTIONS ARE PERFORMED AND WHERE ACTIVE EUTHANASIA IS PRACTICED THE NETHERLANDS AS THE FIRST COUNTRY WITH GAY MARRIAGE

  44. THE NETHERLANDS WAS NOT A COUNTRY WHERE THE LAWS ALLOWED ALL THESE THINGS SOME OF THESE THINGS HAPPENED BECAUSE OF UNINTENDED CONSQUENCES OF REPRESSIVE LAWS OTHER THINGS HAPPENED DESPITE THE SUBSTANCE OF THE LAW YET OTHER THINGS HAPPENED BECAUSE OF FORMAL LAW

  45. PROSTITUTES OFFERING THEMSELVES TO COSTUMERS BY SITTING BEHIND WINDOWS STARTED HAPPENING IN THE NETHERLANDS AT THE END OF THE 19TH CENTURY IN THE NETHERLANDS IT THEN BECAME FORBIDDEN TO RUN FOR A MAN OR A WOMAN A BORDELLO, A CLOSED HOUSE THAT MEN ENTERED AND WHERE THEY COULD TAKE THEIR PICK OF THE PROSTITUTES, EMPLOYED BY THE OWNER