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Improving Reservoir Characterization of Karst-Modified Reservoirs with 3-D Geometric Seismic Attributes . Susan E. Nissen 1 , E. Charlotte Sullivan 2 , Kurt J. Marfurt 3 , and Timothy R. Carr 4 1 Consultant, McLouth , KS 2 Pacific Northwest National Labs, Richland, WA

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slide1

Improving Reservoir Characterization of Karst-Modified Reservoirs with 3-D Geometric Seismic Attributes

Susan E. Nissen1, E. Charlotte Sullivan2, Kurt J. Marfurt3, and Timothy R. Carr4

1Consultant, McLouth, KS

2Pacific Northwest National Labs, Richland, WA

3College of Earth and Energy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK

4Department of Geology and Geography, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV

outline
Outline
  • Characteristics of karst-modified reservoirs
  • Multi-trace geometric seismic attributes
  • Seismic-based examples of
    • Collapse structures
    • Polygonal features
    • Oriented lineaments
  • Interpretation workflow for karst-modified reservoirs
  • Conclusions
slide3

Karst Modified Reservoirs

  • Carbonate reservoirs
  • Rocks modified by dissolution during subaerial exposure
  • May also have hydrothermal and tectonic overprints
slide4

Solution-enlarged fractures

Residual paleo-highs

  • Fluid conduits (if open) or barriers (if filled)
  • May be hydro- carbon traps

Loess-filled fractures, Missouri

Cockpit karst, Jamaica

www.cockpitcountry.com

Examples of karst features that can affect reservoir performance

Collapse features

  • Compartmentalize reservoir
  • Affect deposition of overlying strata

Cave collapse facies in image log

Ft. Worth Basin, Texas

slide5

Interpretation of Karst Features

  • Well data alone is insufficient for identifying the spatial extent and distribution of local karst features.
  • Karst features with substantial vertical relief can be readily identified using 3-D seismic.
  • Critical features relating to reservoir character are often subtleand not readily detected using standard 3-D seismic interpretation methods.
  • Multi-trace geometric seismic attributes can help!
slide6

Multi-Trace Geometric Seismic Attributes

  • Calculated using multiple input seismic traces and a small vertical analysis window
  • The analysis "box" moves throughout the entire data volume => attributes can be output as a 3-D volume
  • Provide quantitative information about lateral variations in the seismic data
slide7

Reference Trace

Instantaneous dip =

Dip with highest

coherence

Dips tested

Multi-Trace Geometric Seismic Attributes

  • Coherence - A measure of the trace-to-trace similarity of the seismic waveform
  • Dip/azimuth - Numerical estimation of the instantaneous dip and azimuth of reflectors
  • Curvature– A measure of the bending of a surface (~2ndderivative of the surface)
slide8

Mid Continent examples

- Collapse structures - Polygonal features - Oriented lineaments

Central Kansas Uplift

Ord. Arbuckle

Mississippian

Ft. Worth Basin Ord. Ellenburger

slide9

Collapse Features – Fort Worth Basin

vertical seismic section

Pennsylvanian Caddo

  • Collapse features are visible asdepressions on the3-D seismic profile
  • Collapse features extend from theEllenburger through Pennsylvanian strata

~2600 ft

Collapse features

Ordovician Ellenburger

slide10

Attribute time slices near the Ellenburger

Amplitude

Coherence

fault

N

Dip/Azimuth

Most Negative Curvature

Collapse features

W

E

S

3 mi

slide11

Collapse features line up at the intersections of negative curvature lineaments

Coherence

Most Negative Curvature

Time = 1.2 s

1 mi

slide12

1 mi

1 mi

1 mi

1.6 km

1.6 km

1.6 km

Polygonal Features

Ordovician ArbuckleKansas

Ordovician EllenburgerFort Worth Basin

Diameters ~700-900 ft

Diameters ~1400-1600 ft

Diameters ~1200 -3500 ft

Vertical relief generally 2 ms (~15 ft) or less

slide13

Cockpit karst

Cockpits

(After Cansler and Carr, 2001)

Arbuckle Polygonal Karst

-- Cockpit Karst

doline

cone

Arbuckle structure overlain with paleotopographic divides in Barton Co., KS (Cansler, 2000)

Morphological map of karst area in New Guinea (Williams, 1972)

Arbuckle time structure overlain by most positive curvature

slide14

Ellenburger polygonal karst

- tectonic collapse structures

Collapse feature at topographic high

Faults

Collapse Features Coincide with Deep Basement Faults

N

slide15

Oriented lineaments -- Kansas Mississippian

Lineament trend vs.oil/water production

0.5 mile

slide16

Workflow for Identification of Karst OverprintsUsing Multi-Trace Attributes

Extract attributes

along horizon or time slice

Volumetric

attributes

Identify dominant karst geomorphology (e.g., polygonalkarst vs. groundwater-sapped plateaus)

Predict general production performance based on type of karst overprint

Horizonpicks

Core and

log data

Separate subaerial karst from tectonic overprint

Identify areas of enhanced or occluded porosity/permeability

Production

data

Identify preferred orientations

of fluid conduits vs. barriers

Measure distance from oriented lineaments.

Outline potential reservoir

compartment boundaries(fluid barriers)

Interpret features relating to

structure, geomorphology,

and reservoir architecture

on attribute slices

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Coherence, dip/azimuth, and curvature extractions are valuable for establishing seismic geomorphology
  • Different attributes reveal different details about karst features
  • A workflow utilizing multi-trace attributes, along with geologic and production information, can improve characterization of karst-modified carbonate reservoirs
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Devon Energy
  • Grand Mesa Operating Company
  • John O. Farmer, Inc.
  • Murfin Drilling Company
  • IHS - geoPLUS Corporation
  • Seismic Micro-Technology, Inc.
  • U. S. Department of Energy
  • Petroleum Research Fund
  • State of Texas ATP
  • Kansas Geological Survey, University of Kansas
  • University of Houston
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