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Components important to the teaching of reading. Automatic word recognition (fluency) comprehension of text development of a love of literature and a desire to read. The Connection Between Decoding and Comprehension.

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components important to the teaching of reading
Components important to the teaching of reading
  • Automatic word recognition (fluency)
  • comprehension of text
  • development of a love of literature and a desire to read
the connection between decoding and comprehension
The Connection Between Decoding and Comprehension

Phonics ~ Decoding ~ Word Recognition ~ Reading Fluency ~ Automaticity ~ Reading Comprehension

graphophonic cues
Graphophonic Cues:

Involve a reader’s knowledge of sound- spelling relationships. Phonics instruction helps children to use these cues

syntactic cues
Syntactic Cues:

Involve a reader’s knowledge of the grammar or structure of language. This knowledge helps the reader to predict what type of word might appear in a certain place in a sentence. This cueing system also involves an understanding of word order and the use of function words, such as the and an.

semantic cues
Semantic Cues

Involve a reader’s knowledge of the world. World knowledge helps the reader use cues in the text to discover the meaning of a word that fits into a specific place in a particular sentence. Readers use their semantic knowledge to determine whether a text makes sense.

10 important research findings about phonics
10 Important Research Findings About Phonics
  • phonics instruction can help all children learn to read
    • Do it early
    • Keep it simple
    • Except in cases of diagnosed individual need, complete instruction by the end of second grade.
  • explicit phonics instruction is more beneficial than implicit instruction
  • most poor readers have weak phonics skills and a strategy imbalance
  • phonics knowledge has a powerful effect on decoding ability
    • Words can be stored in working memory for only a short period of time. Slow decoding can result is some words “decaying” before a meaningful chunk of text can be processed.
    • Devoting large amounts of mental energy to decoding leaves less mental energy for developing comprehension.
good decoders rely less on context clues than poor decoders
  • the reading process relies on a reader’s attention to each letter in a word
  • phonemic awareness is necessary for phonics instruction to be effective
  • phonics instruction improves spelling ability
  • a teacher’s knowledge of phonics affects his or her ability of teach phonics
  • it is possible to overdo phonics instruction
stages of reading
Stages of Reading
  • Emergent Reader (Pre-K to middle of 1)
    • Emergent
  • Beginning Reader (K to middle of 2)
    • Letter Name-Alphabetic
  • Transitional Reader (Grade 1 to middle of 4)
    • Within Word Patter
  • Intermediate Reader (Grades 3 to 8)
    • Syllables and Affixes
  • Advanced Reader (Grades 5 to 12)
    • Derivational Relations
Alphabet Recognition
    • knowing the names of the letters and the sounds they represent
  • Phonemic Awareness
    • understanding that a word is made up of sounds and the ability to manipulate sounds in spoken words
phonemic awareness
Phonemic Awareness

Is the understanding or insight that a word is made up of a series of discrete sounds. Each of these sounds is called a phoneme. This awareness includes the ability to pick out and manipulate sounds in spoken words.

importance of phonemic awareness
Importance of phonemic awareness
  • It is needed in order to associate sounds with letters and manipulate sounds to blend words or segment words.
  • Phonemic awareness training provides the foundation on which phonics instruction is built
  • Children must be able to segment and auditorily discriminate /s/ in the words sit, sand, and sock before it makes sense to them that the letter s stands for this sound in these written words
  • “Phonemic awareness is both a prerequisite for and a consequence of learning to read.” (Yopp, 19912)
keep in mind
Keep in mind:
  • don’t stress written words or letters
  • keep the tone fun and informal
  • monitor each child’s progress
  • model, model, model
  • keep assessing phonemic awareness
  • provide lots and lots of language experiences.
the concepts of print
The Concepts of Print
  • Knowing the difference between words and non-words
  • know that print is print no matter what form it appears in.
  • know that print can appear by itself or with pictures
  • understand that print corresponds to speech word for word
  • understand the purpose of the empty space between words
  • understand that words are read from left to right on a page
  • understand that lines of text are read from top to bottom on a page
  • can identify the front of a book and a page in it
the language of instruction
The Language of Instruction
  • tracking print can help children understand the concept of “word”
  • using sentence strips and pocket charts to have children match sentences with a give text can develop sense of “sentence”
  • certain activities, especially multisensory ones, can help children understand the concept of “beginning, middle, and end.”
sensible sequencing
Sensible Sequencing
  • teach children letter names first
  • put a new spin on a classic song
  • teach the shapes and sounds of letters
  • tailor your letter lessons to students’ needs
  • help children to see differences and similarities
  • provide support for children having difficulty discriminating letters
  • provide letter writing practice (copying and tracing are okay too)
  • use key words and pictures when introducing sound-spelling relationships
  • multisensory activities
  • read many alphabet books