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THE CONSUMER. AS AN INDIVIDUAL. Discussion on…. Consumer Motivation Personality & Consumer Behaviour Consumer Perception Consumer Learning Consumer Attitude Formation Communication & Consumer Behaviour. Consumer Motivation. Innate. Needs Goals Motives. Acquired. Generic.

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the consumer



discussion on
Discussion on….
  • Consumer Motivation
  • Personality & Consumer Behaviour
  • Consumer Perception
  • Consumer Learning
  • Consumer Attitude Formation
  • Communication & Consumer Behaviour
consumer motivation
Consumer Motivation


  • Needs
  • Goals
  • Motives



Product Specific



dynamics of motivation
Dynamics of Motivation
  • Needs are never fully satisfied
  • New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied
  • Success & failure influence goals

-Substitute Goals


- Defense Mechanism

4. Multiplicity of needs & variation of goals

arousal of motives
Arousal of Motives
  • Psychological Arousal
  • Emotional Arousal
  • Cognitive Arousal

** Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

trio of needs
Trio of Needs
  • Power
  • Affiliation
  • Achievement
  • WHO is a CONSUMER?
  • HOW he needs to be SEGMENTED?
  • FIVETeams of 5-6 members
  • Choose any one member from each team as a LEADER
  • First part of the activity involves participation of all members of each team including the leader
  • 2nd & 3rd part of the activity is done by random members (any two for each part from each team) with the instructor & the team leader – Carried out one team after another
  • Duration of the activity: 40 minutes.
  • Carefully read the instructions & follow the same

Consistency in consumption behaviour ( May change!!)

“Those inner characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment”

‘High’/’Low’ in consumer ethnocentrism

Nature of Personality

-Reflects individual differences

-Consistent & enduring

-Can change

Under certain circumstances personalities change

theories of personality
Theories of Personality
  • Freudian Theory
  • Neo-Freudian Theory
  • Trait Theory

Fundamental Assumptions of

Psychoanalytic Theory

According to Freud the mind is made up of 3 parts: the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. The latter is the largest part of the mind and manifests itself in the dreams, “slips of the tongue”, irrational feelings, physical symptoms, or inexplicable anxiety.

Unconscious Motivation

  • Individuals control their sexual and aggressive urges by placing them in the unconscious
  • These take on a life of their own and become the motivated unconscious
freudian theory
Freudian Theory
  • Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality is one of the cornerstones of modern psychology
  • This theory was built on the premise that unconscious needs or drives, especially sexual or other biological drives, are at the heart of human motivation & personality
freudian theory1

“Warehouse” of primitive & impulsive drives- Physiological Needs

Freudian Theory

Individual’s Internal Expression of society’s moral & ethical codes of conducts

  • Freud proposed that the human personality consists of three interacting system:

The Id

The Superego

The Ego

Individual’s conscious control. Functions as an internal monitor

representation of the interrelationships among the id ego superego
Representation of the interrelationships among the Id, Ego & Superego

EGO- System 3

ID- System 1


SUPEREGO- System 2


The Structure of Personality

The pleasure principle is the desire for immediate gratification.

Primary process thinking is thinking without logical rules of conscious thought or an anchor in reality.

The Id – Reservoir of Psychic Energy

  • Most primitive part of the mind; what we are born with
  • Source of all drives and urges
  • Operates according to the pleasure principle and primary process thinking

Refers to the development and devising of strategies for problem solving and obtaining satisfaction.

The Structure of Personality

The ego recognizes under the reality principle that the urges of the id are often in conflict with social and physical reality.

The Ego- Executive of Personality

  • The part of the mind that constrains the id to reality
  • Develops around 2-3 years of age
  • Operates according to the reality principle and secondary process thinking
  • Mediates between id, superego, and environment

The Structure of Personality

The Superego- Upholder of Values and Ideals

  • The part of the mind that internalizes the values, morals, and ideals of society
  • Develops around age 5
  • Not bound by reality

The superego determines what is right and what is wrong, and enforces this through the emotion of guilt. It sets the moral goals and ideals of perfection.



According to Freud your unique character and quirks are the products of how your personality develops during childhood

stages psychosexual development
Stages- Psychosexual Development

Oral Stage: Birth to 18 Months

Anal Stage: 18 months to three years

Phallic stage: 3 years to 7-8 years

Latency Stage: 7-8 years to puberty

Genital Stage- Puberty to Adulthood

Researchers who apply Freud’s psychoanalytic theory

to the study of consumer personality believe that

human drives are largely unconscious &

that consumers are primarily unaware of their

true reasons for buying what they buy

Neo-Freudian TheoryNeo Freudians' believed that social relationships are fundamental to the formation & development of personality
the neo freudians carl jung s analytical psychology
The Neo-Freudians: Carl Jung’s Analytical Psychology

The Personal and the Collective Unconscious

  • Jung shared, yet rejected, many of Freud's beliefs
  • Jung believed in the importance of the unconscious and the power of dream analysis
  • Jung favored spirituality and the notion of psychosocial rather than psychosexual energy
the neo freudians carl jung s analytical psychology1
The Neo-Freudians: Carl Jung’s Analytical Psychology

The Personal and the Collective Unconscious

  • Jung referred to the personal unconscious as a collection of personal experiences
  • Coined the term ‘complex’ to reflect personal tension
  • Referred to a collective unconscious to reflect spiritual influences, composed of various archetypes, that are inherited and universal

Typical example of certain person or thing

the neo freudians carl jung s analytical psychology2
The Neo-Freudians: Carl Jung’s Analytical Psychology

Specific Archetypes

  • The mandala refers to the goal of a developing unified self that is a unique process (individuation)
  • The anima refers to the feminine side of males, whereas the animus refers to the masculine side of females
  • The shadow archetype refers to the dark side of humanity
the neo freudians carl jung s analytical psychology3
The Neo-Freudians: Carl Jung’s Analytical Psychology


  • Jung was the first person to make the extroversion–introversion distinction
  • Jung viewed extroversion as energy habitually directed outward and introversion as energy habitually directed inward
  • Jung viewed extroversion and introversion as different cognitive states that affect attention and objectivity
the neo freudians carl jung s analytical psychology4
The Neo-Freudians: Carl Jung’s Analytical Psychology


  • Jung linked personality to cultural differences
  • Jung referred to individual differences in personality that reflect psychological functions (ways a person relates to others, the world, and information)
  • Jung’s four psychological functions are sensing, intuition, thinking, and feeling that combine to form 16 different psychological types.
the neo freudians alfred adler
The Neo-Freudians:Alfred Adler
  • Adler’s perspective views each person as unique, and he represents a movement called individual psychology
  • Adler refuted Freud’s notion that sexual urges motivate people
  • Adler believed that people try to overcome a sense of inferiority that arises from a biological weakness (organ inferiority) or from a psychological weakness
the neo freudians alfred adler1
The Neo-Freudians:Alfred Adler

The Inferiority Complex

  • Adler believed that we strive to overcome an inferiority complex by aiming for superiority and perfection
  • Organ and inferiority complexes were universal concepts for Adler, but differences in biological and environmental factors accounted for individual differences
the neo freudians alfred adler2
The Neo-Freudians:Alfred Adler

Styles of Life and the Meaning of Life

  • Styles of life are unique patterns of life expression that are the result of early life experiences
  • Meanings that are “gravely mistaken” result from situations that involve organ inferiority, pampered children, and neglected children
the neo freudians alfred adler3
The Neo-Freudians:Alfred Adler

Styles of Life and the Meaning of Life

  • Organ inferiority contributes to humiliation and defensiveness from social comparisons, but can be overcome
  • Pampered children feel prominent and may react when they no longer feel this way
  • Neglected children may become cold and hostile due to their mistrust of others
the neo freudians alfred adler4
The Neo-Freudians:Alfred Adler

Styles of Life and the Meaning of Life

  • Adler’s focus in therapy was on discovering prototypes (early memories) called old remembrances that determine adult styles of life
  • Adler outlined four styles of life:
  • Ruling Type: desire for control
  • Getting Type: dependent on others
  • Avoiding Type: avoidant and isolated
  • Socially Useful Type: self-control and social interest
the neo freudians alfred adler5
The Neo-Freudians:Alfred Adler

Social Interest

  • Social interest develops in childhood and is influenced by the interaction with the mother
  • Adler referred to the superiority complex to describe persons having more interest in personal goals than in social interest, and overcompensating for feelings of inferiority
  • Research has reported low inter-correlationsamong measures of social interest
the neo freudians alfred adler6
The Neo-Freudians:Alfred Adler

Birth Order

  • Adler supported a link between birth order and personality and outlined several types:
  • Only children are pampered and lack social interest
  • First-born children are conservative and obedient
  • Second-born children are best adjusted
the neo freudians alfred adler7
The Neo-Freudians:Alfred Adler

Birth Order

  • Ernst and Angst (1983) found a low association between birth order and personality, and identified several flaws in this type of research
  • Sulloway’s (1996) niche model of personality describes first borns as high achievers and second borns as rebellious
  • Most research in this area is inconsistent, but beliefs about birth order are still held by most people
the neo freudians alfred adler8
The Neo-Freudians:Alfred Adler

Evaluation of Adler’s Contributions

  • The inferiority complex is regarded as central to identity
  • The role of social interest is key to an understanding of maladaptiveness
  • Identifying pampered and neglected children has contributed to research on parental roles in shaping personality
the neo freudians karen horney
The Neo-Freudians:Karen Horney

Horney and the Importance of Culture

  • Horney believed that cultural factors influence personality and individual differences
  • Horney identified three contradictions for all people:
  • Success vs. Love
  • Idealism vs. Frustration
  • Independence vs. Situational constraints
the neo freudians karen horney1
The Neo-Freudians:Karen Horney

Basic Anxiety and Basic Hostility

  • Horney asserted that behavior is directed by basic anxiety (helplessness, fear of abandonment)
  • Horney asserted that children develop basic hostility as a result of parental neglect
  • Horney suggested that a basic conflict arises from contradictions and is central to neurosis

Neurosis is a class of functional mental disorders involving distress but neither delusions nor hallucinations, whereby behavior is not outside socially acceptable norms

the neo freudians karen horney2
The Neo-Freudians:Karen Horney

Moving Toward, Against, and Away From People

  • For Horney, neurosis stems from opposing desires to move toward, against, and away from others which she called attitudes
  • Horney described dependent persons as engaging in a self-effacing solution in order to gain love

The Neurotic Needs

  • Horney outlined ten neurotic needs that reflect personal maladjustment in moving toward, against, and away from people
trait theory
Trait Theory
  • It focuses on the measurements of personality in terms of specific psychological characteristics, called “traits”.
  • Trait theorists are concerned with the construction of personality tests.
  • Single trait personality tests- Consumer Innovativeness


- Consumer Materialism

- Consumer Ethnocentrism

Degree of Rigidity vs. Openness


Trait-Factor Theory

  • Quantitative approach to personality
  • Personality made up of traits: any distinguishable, relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another
  • Understanding consumer traits can be useful in marketing planning

Trait-Factor Theory

Assumes that traits are common to many individuals and vary in absolute amounts among individuals

Traits are relatively stable and exert fairly universal effects on behavior regardless of the environmental situation

Traits can be inferred from the measurement of behavioral indicators


Trait-Factor Theory

Trait theory is most useful to marketing strategists in developing brand personality—the personality consumers interpret from a specific brand

Brands may be characterized as old-fashioned, modern, fun, provocative, masculine, or glamorous