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Epidemiological Transition Models Population Control. Epidemiological Transition Model. ETM-shows distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition model Stage 1 Epidemics/Pandemics: Infectious and parasitic diseases, famine

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epidemiological transition model
Epidemiological Transition Model
  • ETM-shows distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition model
  • Stage 1
    • Epidemics/Pandemics: Infectious and parasitic diseases, famine
    • Ex: Black Plague (25 million Europeans died)
  • Stage 2
    • Receding epidemic (affects high proportion of population, but in isolation)
    • Ex: Cholera (contaminated water supply)
epidemiological transition model1
Epidemiological Transition Model
  • Stage 3
    • Degenerative and human-created disease
    • Ex: Cardiovascular disease and Cancer
  • Stage 4
    • Delayed degenerative diseases
    • Ex: Alzheimer's, Diabetes
  • Stage 5?
    • Reemerging infectious and

parasitic disease

    • Ex: Malaria, TB, AIDS
aids hiv
AIDS/HIV+
  • 2010 world distribution:
    • 23 million in Sub-Saharan Africa
    • 5+ million in Asia (India, China, SE Asia)
    • 2 million in Latin America (Caribbean-Haiti)
  • Sub-Saharan Africa
    • 70% of HIV cases
    • Zimbabwe, Botswana, Zambia, South Africa,

Kenya

    • Increase death rates
    • Declining life expectancy
how do governments affect population change
How do Governments Affect Population Change?
  • Many governments institute policies designed to influence the overall growth rate or ethnic ratios within the population.

These policies fall into three groups:

1. Expansive

2. Eugenic

3. Restrictive

expansive population policies
Expansive Population Policies
  • Encourage families to have more children
  • Communist Societies
    • Soviet Union
    • China – Mao Zedong
  • European countries: NOW
    • Tax incentives
    • Sweden
      • Cash payments, tax incentives, job leave, work hour flexibility lasting up to 8 years after birth
      • Short baby boom, but led to issues
eugenic population policies
Eugenic Population Policies
  • Favoring one racial or cultural sector of the population over the others
    • Tax discrimination, allocation of resources, favoritism
  • Examples
    • Nazi Germany
    • Japan?
    • USA?
restrictive population policies
Restrictive Population Policies
  • Reducing the rate of natural increase through a range of means
    • China: “One-child” policy: Income bonuses, Better health care benefits, Better retirement pensions, Priority in housing
solutions to population growth
Solutions to Population Growth
  • Empowerment of Women
    • $ for contraception & education
    • Changing cultural norms to value girls
  • Diffusion of Birth Control Policies
    • Educating men

w/ responsibility

for birth control

    • Sterilization
solutions to population growth1
Solutions to Population Growth
  • Redistribution of wealth - improve standard of living for poor so that children aren’t as necessary
    • Improving farming techniques in poor areas
    • Starvation, Malnourishment
solutions to population growth2
Solutions to Population Growth
  • Medical technology –

costs of maintaining

vulnerable populations

(old & young)

  • Addressing government policies to deal with their growing populations
something to think about
Something to think about…
  • Is population control funded by MDCs ethical in LDCs?
    • Population control v. culture
    • Birth control?
    • Sterilization?
    • Abortion?
    • Sex determination?
    • Incentives: Money, food, clothing?
  • Is population control funded by MDCs needed to keep mass amounts of people in the LDCs out of poverty?
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