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Chapter 5. Silica-Fume Concrete Projects. Bridge Decks Parking Structure High-Rise Columns HPC Bridge Shotcrete Rehabilitation HPC Constructability. Bridge Decks -- New Construction and Overlays (Fly Ash and Silica Fume Combination). Chapter Outline. Project :.

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chapter 5 silica fume concrete projects
Chapter 5. Silica-Fume Concrete Projects
  • Bridge Decks
  • Parking Structure
  • High-Rise Columns
  • HPC Bridge
  • Shotcrete Rehabilitation
  • HPC Constructability
bridge decks new construction and overlays fly ash and silica fume combination
Bridge Decks -- New Construction and Overlays(Fly Ash and Silica Fume Combination)

Chapter

Outline

project
Project:

Bridge Deck Construction

New York State DOT

High-Performance Concrete

Requirements:

Resist chloride ion penetration

Minimize cracking

concrete mixture
Concrete Mixture:

Portland cement 500 lb/yd3

Fly ash 135 lb/yd3

Silica fume 40 lb/yd3

w/cm 0.40

Slump 3-4 inches

Air 6.5 %

Wet cure 7 days

concrete performance
Concrete Performance:

Rapid chloride

permeability: < 1,600 coulombs

Compressive strength,

28 days: > 5,400 psi

“Results indicated that Class HP decks performed better than previously specified concrete in resisting both longitudinal and transverse cracking.”

slide6

SI

Project:

Bridge Deck Construction

New York State DOT

High-Performance Concrete

Requirements:

Resist chloride ion penetration

Minimize cracking

slide7

SI

Concrete Mixture:

Portland cement 300 kg/m3

Fly ash 80 kg/m3

Silica fume 25 kg/m3

w/cm 0.40

Slump 75-100 mm

Air 6.5 %

Wet cure 7 days

slide8

SI

Concrete Performance:

Rapid chloride

permeability: < 1,600 coulombs

Compressive strength,

28 days: > 37 MPa

“Results indicated that Class HP decks performed better than previously specified concrete in resisting both longitudinal and transverse cracking.”

project15
Project:

Bridge Deck Overlay, Ohio DOT

Beverly, Ohio

Requirements:

Resist chloride ion penetration

4,500 psi at 28 days

RCP < 1,000 coulombs

concrete mixture16
Concrete Mixture:

Portland cement, Type I 700 lb/yd3

Silica fume 70 lb/yd3

w/cm 0.36

Slump 4-8 in.

Air 6-10%

HRWRA 20 fl oz/cwt

WRA, Type D 3 fl oz/cwt

concrete performance17
Concrete Performance:

Rapid chloride

permeability 600 coulombs

Compressive strength,

28 days 7,000 psi

slide18

SI

Project:

Bridge Deck Overlay, Ohio DOT

Beverly, Ohio

Requirements:

Resist chloride ion penetration

31 MPa at 28 days

RCP < 1,000 coulombs

slide19

SI

Concrete Mixture:

Portland cement, Type I 415 kg/m3

Silica fume 41.5 kg/m3

w/cm 0.36

Slump 100-200 mm

Air 6-10%

HRWRA 1.3L/100 kg

WRA, Type D 165 ml/100 kg

slide20

SI

Concrete Performance:

Rapid chloride

permeability 600 coulombs

Compressive strength,

28 days 48 MPa

parking structure
Parking Structure

Chapter

Outline

slide28

Project:

Parking Structure

General Mitchell Airport

Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Requirements:

Resist chloride ion penetration

2,000 psi at 36 hours

5,700 psi at 56 days

slide29

Concrete Mixture:

Portland cement, Type I 565 lb/yd3

Fly ash, Class C 100 lb/yd3

Silica fume 39 lb/yd3

w/cm 0.35

WRA 12 fl oz/yd3

Slump, maximum 9 in.

Additional WRA and HRWRA in SF slurry

slide30

Concrete Performance:

Compressive strength,

36 hours: > 2,000 psi

Cores taken at 2 - 10 months averaged < 1,000 coulombs

Slump used: 6 - 7.5 in.

slide31

SI

Project:

Parking Structure

General Mitchell Airport

Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Requirements:

Resist chloride ion penetration

14 MPa at 36 hours

40 MPa at 56 days

slide32

SI

Concrete Mixture:

Portland cement, Type I 335 kg/m3

Fly ash, Class C 60 kg/m3

Silica fume 17 kg/m3

w/cm 0.35

WRA 440 mL/m3

Slump, maximum 230 mm

Additional WRA and HRWRA in SF slurry

slide33

SI

Concrete Performance:

Compressive strength,

36 hours > 14 MPa

Cores taken at 2 - 10 months averaged < 1,000 coulombs

Slump used: 150- 90 mm

high rise columns
High-Rise Columns

Chapter

Outline

slide41

Project:

Key Bank Tower

Cleveland, Ohio

Requirements:

High ultimate strength, > 12,000 psi

High modulus, > 6,800,000 psi

Pumpable, 57 stories

slide42

Concrete Mixture:

Portland cement, Type I 685 lb/yd3

GGBFS 285 lb/yd3

Silica fume 80 lb/yd3

w/cm 0.24

Slump, minimum 10 in.

HRWRA 30-50 fl oz/cwt

WRA, Type A 4 fl oz/cwt

slide43

Concrete Performance:

Modulus > 7,000,000 psi

Compressive strength,

28 days > 14,000 psi

56 days > 15,000 psi

slide44

SI

Project:

Key Bank Tower

Cleveland, Ohio

Requirements:

High ultimate strength, > 83 MPa

High modulus, > 47 GPa

Pumpable, 57 stories

slide45

SI

Concrete Mixture:

Portland cement, Type I 406 kg/m3

GGBFS 169 kg/m3

Silica fume 47 kg/m3

w/cm 0.24

Slump, minimum 250 mm

HRWRA 2.0-3.3 L/100 kg

WRA, Type A 260 mL/100 kg

slide46

SI

Concrete Performance:

Modulus > 48 GPa

Compressive strength,

28 days > 97 MPa

56 days > 103 MPa

hpc bridge
HPC Bridge

Chapter

Outline

slide54

Project:

I-25 and Yale Bridge, Colorado DOT

Denver, Colorado

Requirements:

Reduced number of spans with shallow superstructure depth

Compressive strength: 10,000 psi

slide55

Concrete Mixture:

Portland cement, Type I 730 lb/yd3

Silica fume 35 lb/yd3

w/cm 0.29

HRWRA 44-131 fl oz/yd3

WRA 15-58 fl oz/yd3

slide56

SI

Project:

I-25 and Yale Bridge, Colorado DOT

Denver, Colorado

Requirements:

Reduced number of spans with shallow substructure depth

Compressive strength: 69 MPa

slide57

SI

Concrete Mixture:

Portland cement, Type I 433 kg/m3

Silica fume 21 kg/m3

w/cm 0.29

HRWRA 1.7-5.1 L/m3

WRA 0.6-2.2 L/m3

slide61

Project:

Seismic Retrofit

Littlerock Dam, California

Requirements:

Provide adequate seismic stability for maximum credible earthquake

Compressive strength of 6,000 psi at 28 days in a 4-in. thick overlay

slide62

Concrete Mixture:

Portland cement, Type I 682 lb/yd3

Silica fume 70 lb/yd3

Steel fibers 100 lb/yd3

w/cm 0.45

Slump 2-4 in.

slide63

Concrete Performance:

Compressive strength, cores,

> 21 days, average 7,300 psi

Pulloff testing of cores satisfied project requirements of 150 psi

Average shotcrete thickness: 4.7 in.

slide64

SI

Project:

Seismic Retrofit

Littlerock Dam, California

Requirements:

Provide adequate seismic stability for maximum credible earthquake

Compressive strength of 41 MPa at 28 days in a 100-mm thick overlay

slide65

SI

Concrete Mixture:

Portland cement, Type I 405 kg/m3

Silica fume 41 kg/m3

Steel fibers 60 kg/m3

w/cm 0.45

Slump 50 - 100 mm

slide66

SI

Concrete Performance:

Compressive strength, cores,

> 28 days, average > 50 MPa

Pulloff testing of cores satisfied project requirements of 1.0 MPa

Average shotcrete thickness: 119 mm

hpc constructability
HPC Constructability

Chapter

Outline

slide74

Project:

Canister Storage Building

Hanford Nuclear Site, WA

Requirements:

Ease of placement

Temperature control of mass concrete

High early strength for stripping

High durability

slide75

Concrete Mixture:

Portland cement, Type I 391 lb/yd3

Fly ash, Class F 150 lb/yd3

Silica fume 60 lb/yd3

w/cm 0.37

Slump 8 in.

HRWRA 150 fl oz/yd3

Mid-range WRA 60 fl oz/yd3

slide76

Concrete Performance:

Concrete temperature,

as delivered < 70 deg F

in place < 100 deg F

Compressive strength,

28 days > 6,300 psi

90 days > 7,500 psi

slide77

SI

Concrete Mixture:

Portland cement, Type I 232 kg/m3

Fly ash, Class F 89 kg/m3

Silica fume 36 kg/m3

w/cm 0.37

Slump 200 mm

HRWRA 5.8 L/m3

Mid-range WRA 2.3 L/m3

slide78

SI

Concrete Performance:

Concrete temperature,

as delivered < 21 deg C

in place < 38 deg C

Compressive strength,

28 days > 43 MPa

90 days > 52 MPa

end of chapter 5
End of Chapter 5

Main

Outline