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ME 480 Introduction To Aerospace: Chapter 2. Prof. Doug Cairns. Forces On a Body. Spatial Quantities pressure, density, temperature, velocity. Supersonic flow (oil streak used for visualization). Smoke Injectors to Visualize Streamlines. Particles follow Streamlines.

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Presentation Transcript
for the next few slides
For the Next Few Slides
  • Basic Physics of Flight
  • What’s happening during a flight
  • Rule of Thumb airplane design
basic forces
Basic Forces

Lift

Drag

Trim

Thrust

Weight

what s in weight

Lift

Drag

Trim

Thrust

Weight

What’s in Weight?

Paying Passengers and Cargo

Payload

Fuel

Reserves

Operating items

Systems

Propulsion

Landing Gear

Body

Wing & Tails

Food, Supplies

Navigate, control and support life

Generate force to move airplane

Support airplane on the ground

Enclose the payload

Provide lift

Airplane

Operating

Empty

Weight (OEW)

weight changes during the flight
Weight changes during the flight.

End of flightStart of Flight

Payload

Burn off fuel

Fuel

Payload

Fuel

Reserves

Operating items

Systems

Propulsion

Landing Gear

Body

Wing & Tails

Food, Supplies

Navigate, control & support life

Generate force to move airplane

Support airplane on the ground

Enclose the payload

Provide lift

Operating empty weight

how do you make lift
How do you make Lift?

Lift

Drag

Bernoulli:

“The faster the air flows over the surface, the lower the pressure air exerts on the surface.”

Trim

Thrust

Weight

how to change lift
How to Change Lift
  • Since Lift is about the same as weight and weight changes, then must be able to change lift.
    • Increase lift by
      • increasing the tilt of the wing
      • increasing the speed of the airplane (actually speed squared)
      • decreasing the altitude of the airplane above the ground.
but there are limits to lift
But there are Limits to Lift

“Stall”

The flow no longer can stay attached to the upper surface.

Lift

Airfoil Tilt Angle

ways around the limits to lift
Ways around the Limits to Lift

“Slats & Flaps”

“Slats”

Lift

Airfoil Tilt Angle

how to create thrust
How to create Thrust

Lift

Drag

Trim

Thrust

Weight

  • A propeller produces thrust like a wing produces lift except:
    • The propeller is a wing rotated 90 degrees
    • The speed over the airfoil comes from rotating the prop.
how does a jet engine produce thrust
How does a jet engine produce thrust?

Propeller (“compressors”)

Propeller (“turbines”)

Fuel Burned

(Generates high speed air)

Thrust

A jet engine “sucks, squeezes, burns and blows.”

what is drag
What is “Drag”?

Lift

Drag

Trim

Thrust

Weight

Due to the influence of an airfoil on those outboard of it

Due to the rapid growth of the boundary layer

Due to roughness, gaps & antennas

Due to the friction in the boundary layer next to the skin to the air flowing over the skin.

Lift and Span

Aerodynamic details

Smoothness

Outside surface area

Induced

“Pressure”

Excrescence

Skin Friction

what why trim
Trim comes from a wing like surface mounted on the back of the airplane

To change the tilt of the airplane

increase down load - airplane nose goes up

decrease down load - airplane nose goes down

What & Why Trim?

Lift

Drag

Trim

Thrust

Weight

airplane controls
Airplane Controls

Fin

Rudder

Aileron

Elevators

Flaps

Slats

Stabilizer (Tail)

Spoilers

airplane stability

Lift

Weight

Airplane Stability

A stable system

A stable airplane

Move the ball away from the bottom and it returns to the bottom

Because ball’s center of gravity is above the bottom of the bucket

Move the nose of the airplane up and the airplane’s nose will come back down.

Because airplane’s center of lift is aft of the center of weight

how does an airplane turn
How does an airplane turn?

It banks.

Lift

Weight

why do airplanes have rudders
Why do airplanes have rudders?

To balance an inoperative engine and crosswinds.

design envelope
Design Envelope

Stall Margins

Pressurization

Engine out takeoff

System redundancy

Brake Capability

Fatigue

Flutter

Takeoff and Landing Distances

Situation Awareness

Speed margins

Structural Strength margins

the plane that taught america to fly
The Plane that Taught America to Fly

Note: Dr. Cairns has around 100 hrs in this make and type, over 200 hours in similar type aircraft