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The Purposes of Government. Section 1 Focus What is government ? What are the major characteristics of a state ? What are the major functions of government? What theories of rule have been put forth to explain government?.

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slide2

The Purposes of Government

  • Section 1 Focus
  • What is government?
  • What are the major characteristics of a state?
  • What are the major functions of government?
  • What theories of rule have been put forth to explain government?
slide3

“Government is not the solution to our problems. Government is the problem.”

Ronald Reagan

  • Do you agree with this?
  • Why do many Americans dislike “the government?”
  • Could society exist without government?
slide4

Section 1 at a Glance

Government

The formal structures and institutions through which decisions are made for a group of people.

slide5

What Is Government?

  • Three main components of government
  • People—Elected officials with authority and control over others; public servants who carry out day-to-day governmental business.
  • Power— To make and enforce laws, to settle disputes and protect rights.
  • Policy— Actions by the government in pursuit of a goal.
slide6

Characteristics of a State

What makes the United States (or any other country) “one nation?”

slide7

Characteristics of a State

What makes the United States (or any other country) “one nation?”

  • Population
  • Territory
  • Government
  • Sovereignty
slide8

Characteristics of a State

State: political unit with the power to make and enforce laws over a group of people living within a clearly defined territory

  • Characteristics:
  • Population—Must have people; number does not matter
  • Territory—Must have clearly defined and recognized borders
  • Government—Must have a government that issues and enforces rules for the people living within its territory; government must be recognized from within and by other nation states in the international community
  • Sovereignty—Must have supreme power to act within its territory and to control its external affairs
slide9

Origins of the state

How did government begin in human society?

slide10

Origins of the State

The force theory states that one person or a small group took control of an area and forced all within it to submit to that person’s or group’s rule.

slide11

Origins of the State

The evolutionary theory argues that the state evolved naturally out of the early family.

slide12

Origins of the State

The theory of divine right holds that God created the state and that God gives those of royal birth a “divine right” to rule.

slide13

Origins of the State

The social contract theory argues that the state arose out of a voluntary act of free people.

slide15

Functions of Government

  • Ensure National Security
  • Guard its territory and its people against external threats
  • Create and maintain national defense forces including military personnel, weaponry, and operations, as well as peacekeeping missions
  • Maintain good relations with other nations (diplomacy)
slide16

Functions of Government

  • Maintain Order
  • Laws help maintain order and protect rights, property, and lives
  • Must have clear rules for unacceptable behavior and consequences
  • Different societies have different ideas about lawful behavior and appropriate punishment
  • Must have the ability to identify and punish wrongdoers
slide17

Resolve Conflict

  • Conflicts are resolved through the justice system.
  • People and groups try to influence government decisions through politics.
slide18

Provide Services

  • People pay taxes to fund services such as parks, mail, and education
  • Public goods include clean water, parks, and roads; restricted services may include medical care, high schools, and public housing
slide19

Provide for the

  • Public Good
  • Taking actions that benefit the people.
  • Definitions of “public” and “public good” change over time.
  • What is “good” for one group of people is often not “good” for another group.
  • These questions are addressed through the political process
slide20

The Forms of Government

  • Section 2 Focus
  • What are the classic forms of government?
  • How is national power organized differently in unitary, federal and confederal systems?
slide21

Forms of Government

  • Section 2 Focus
  • What are the classic forms of government?
  • How is national power organized differently in unitary, federal, and confederal systems?
  • In what ways do presidential and parliamentary systems differ?
slide23

The Classic Forms

  • Monarchy
  • Government is headed by one person with supreme authority
  • In absolute monarchy, powers are unlimited and unchecked
  • Constitutional monarchy most common form today
    • Monarch is ceremonial head of state
    • Real power belongs to another part of the government
  • Dictatorship
  • One person, or a small group of people, holds unlimited power
  • Power is maintained by force
  • Most dictators head authoritarian or totalitarian regimes
  • An oligarchy is led by a small group of people
  • Dictatorships can be secular or theocracies
slide24

Democracy

  • “Rule by the people”
  • In a pure democracy, the people make major government decisions through a process of majority rule.
  • In a direct democracy, such as Athens, citizens meet regularly to discuss issues and vote for leaders.
  • Athens was actually an elite-based system.
  • In a republic, the people elect representatives to make decisions on their behalf.
  • In a representative democracy, the people are the source of authority.
    • Elected representatives closely follow the wishes of the people
    • Elections are free and fair
    • Everyone can participate equally in the political process
slide26

Organizing National Power

  • National power
  • Consists of a number of smaller administrative units
  • Control can be centralized or spread across geographic regions
  • Unitary systems
  • Sovereignty rests in a single, national government with ultimate authority
  • Has the power to change or abolish local governments
  • Federal systems
  • Divides power between a national government and smaller regional governments
  • Levels act independently, but cannot abolish or reorganize the other level
  • Confederal systems
  • Independent states join forces in a central government
  • States delegate limited powers to the central government for common interests
slide27

Democracy the United States

  • Section 3 Focus
  • Why are the ideals of liberty, equality and self-government important to American democracy?
  • What are the basic principles of American democracy?
  • Why is the free-enterprise system important to American democracy?
slide28

Basic Principles of American Democracy

  • Ideal—Conception of something in its most perfect form
  • Core ideals of American democracy—Liberty,equality,self-government
  • Used from the beginning of our republic
  • Recorded in our nation’s founding documents
  • Still guide our government
slide29

Core Ideals of American Democracy

  • Liberty
  • Ability of people to act and think as they choose.
  • Choices must do no harm to the liberty or well-being of others.
  • Freedom from government control.
  • Freedom to exercise citizens’ rights guaranteed under the Constitution
slide30

Core Ideals of American Democracy

  • Equality
  • All people possess a fundamental, moral worth.
  • Their worth entitles them to fair treatment and equal opportunity.
  • Equality must be balanced with liberty to avoid despotism
slide31

Core Ideals of American Democracy

  • Self-Government
  • All people can rule themselves and do so as political equals.
  • People are the ultimate source of government authority.
  • Governments derive their powers from the consent of the governed.
  • People have a right to revolt against a government that has lost their consent.
slide32

Principles of American Democracy

  • Worth of the Individual
  • People can reach their highest potential if they are free to pursue their own path in life.
  • Democracy values individual freedom, personal responsibility, self-reliance, and individual achievement.
slide33

Principles of American Democracy

  • Rule of Law
  • “A government of laws, not of men”
  • Everyone in society – even government leaders -- is bound by the law.
  • The Constitution is the fundamental law which limits the power of government.
slide34

Principles of American Democracy

  • Majority Rule, Minority Rights
  • Decision making by majority rule, balanced by minority rights
  • Individual rights are protected under a liberal democracy
slide35

Principles of American Democracy

  • Compromise
  • Ability of two opposing groups to give up some demands and reach agreement.
  • Necessary to keep the political process moving
slide36

Principles of American Democracy

  • Citizen Participation
  • Citizens must be informed about public issues
  • There are many ways to participate peacefully, respectfully, and with tolerance
slide37

House, Senate reach agreement on health care reform bill

Leaders of the House of Representatives and Senate finally settled the differences in two proposals to overhaul the nation’s health care system.

  • Identify the concept of democracy that matches each newspaper headline.
  • Worth of the individual
  • Rule of law.
  • Majority rule, minority rights.
  • Need for compromise
  • Citizen participation

#1

slide38

African-American couple wins lawsuit

Bill and Mary Jones were awarded $100,000 in circuit court after a judge ruled against a real estate agent who deliberately kept them from seeing homes for sale in a white neighborhood.

  • Identify the concept of democracy that matches each newspaper headline.
  • Worth of the individual
  • Rule of law.
  • Majority rule, minority rights.
  • Need for compromise
  • Citizen participation

#2

slide39

#3

  • Identify the concept of democracy that matches each newspaper headline.
  • Worth of the individual
  • Rule of law.
  • Majority rule, minority rights.
  • Need for compromise
  • Citizen participation

Gay/lesbian march considered successful

Leaders of the gay/lesbian community declared Saturday’s “March for Marriage” a success.

slide40

#4

  • Identify the concept of democracy that matches each newspaper headline.
  • Worth of the individual
  • Rule of law.
  • Majority rule, minority rights.
  • Need for compromise
  • Citizen participation

School forced to accommodate disabled student

The three-story Looville High School will be required to install a new elevator so that a wheelchair-using student can attend classes in the top floor science labs.

slide41

#5

  • Identify the concept of democracy that matches each newspaper headline.
  • Worth of the individual
  • Rule of law.
  • Majority rule, minority rights.
  • Need for compromise
  • Citizen participation

Officials announce location of new landfill

After nearly two years of negotiating, Staunton and Augusta County officials have decided to locate the new landfill in Ft. Defiance, adjacent to the high school property.

slide42

#6

  • Identify the concept of democracy that matches each newspaper headline.
  • Worth of the individual
  • Rule of law.
  • Majority rule, minority rights.
  • Need for compromise
  • Citizen participation

Half-way house to open in Hill Street neighborhood

Despite the loud objections of many residents, a city judge ruled that a half-way house for convicted felons has a legal right to operate at the planned location on Hill Street.

slide43

#7

  • Identify the concept of democracy that matches each newspaper headline.
  • Worth of the individual
  • Rule of law.
  • Majority rule, minority rights.
  • Need for compromise
  • Citizen participation

5th grade girl organizes backpack drive

Sara Smith, a local 5th grader, has worked with her Girl Scout troop to get over 100 backpacks filled with school supplies donated for needy children.

slide44

#8

  • Identify the concept of democracy that matches each newspaper headline.
  • Worth of the individual
  • Rule of law.
  • Majority rule, minority rights.
  • Need for compromise
  • Citizen participation

Labor union allowed to protest

A federal judge ruled that labor union members must be permitted to protest on the sidewalk outside the factory where they work.

slide45

#9

  • Identify the concept of democracy that matches each newspaper headline.
  • Worth of the individual
  • Rule of law.
  • Majority rule, minority rights.
  • Need for compromise
  • Citizen participation

Community outraged over judge’s ruling

After complaints by several Jewish students, Terryville High School cheerleaders will no longer be allowed to display banners with gospel verses at football games.

slide46

#10

  • Identify the concept of democracy that matches each newspaper headline.
  • Worth of the individual
  • Rule of law.
  • Majority rule, minority rights.
  • Need for compromise
  • Citizen participation

Augusta County supervisors, school board, settle on teacher salaries

County supervisors and the school board finally reached a deal on the size of teacher raises for next year.

slide47

Free Enterprise Economic System

  • Ensures economic freedom
  • Free enterprise allows both people and businesses to make their own economic choices
  • Key to preserving other freedoms and to allowing people to build wealth, thereby empowering them to limit governmental power
  • Where the government’s role in the economy is minimal, economic freedoms thrive. Where the government plays a major role in the economy, people may have fewer economic freedoms.