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Chapter 31

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  1. Chapter 31 Review and Discussion

  2. What Caused WWII? • Great Depression • Failure of the League of Nation to police the world • 3 dictators came to power at about the same time • 1923- Benito Mussolini - Italy • 1930’s – Hideki Tojo - Japan • 1933 – Adolf Hitler (Nazi party) - Germany

  3. The Great Depression in the 1930s • Stock market crash of 1929 • Consumption and production around the world declined. • Unemployment rose drastically. • American banks called in overseas loans to offset their losses. • Smoot-Hawley tariff • Highest import duty in American history • In retaliation, other countries raised their tariffs • resulting in decreased export industries and additional reductions in world trade. • Effects of the depression on nations • France and Britain were to some extent insulated from the world economy by their overseas colonies. • Japan and Germany suffered much more because they relied on exports to pay for imports of food and fuel • South Africa’s economy boomed because Depression made gold more valuable • Radical reforms and leaders • United States enacted sweeping New Deal legislation, and radical politicians came to power in Germany, Italy, and Japan.

  4. Leaders of the Axis Power

  5. Explain the reasons for the Soviet Union’s economic success during the 1930s • Stalin’s goal • Transform the USSR into an industrial nation and increase the power of the communist party • First Five-Year Plan • increased Soviet military and industrial might by developing electric power and heavy industry (iron, coal, steel, and machinery) • Collective agriculture • Turned small private farms into collective farms • Collectivization transformed Soviet rural society, imposing an urban-industrial way of life on the peasantry. • Rebellion among the kulaks resulted in widespread starvation and hardship because they burned their crops and killed their livestock • Second Five Year Plan (1933-1937) • After Nazi Germany’s rise to power, the Second Five-Year Plan abandoned its goal of producing consumer goods and focused instead on military expansion. • Women in particular entered employment and careers formerly denied them.

  6. Similarities of the Axis Powers • State is “all powerful” • Individuals give up their freedoms • Believed in using force to expand the boundaries of their countries

  7. Explain the rise of fascism in Europe and the events leading up to the Second World War. • Fascism • Extreme nationalism • result of social and economic instability caused by World War I and the Depression. • Mussolini and Hitler • appealed to unemployed veterans and violent youths. • Economic well-being outweighed a loss of liberty • Il Duce (the leader) became prime minister and Installed Fascist party members in all government jobs and crushed all opposition • Hitler became chancellor in 1933; Fuhrer (leader) 1934 • Hitler also emphasized Aryan racial superiority (Germans, Britons, Scandinavian) and blamed Jews for Germany’s postwar troubles.

  8. Warning signs • In 1931, Japan attacked Manchuria • In 1935, Italy attacked Ethiopia • Hitler tested French and British resolve by repeatedly violating the Treaty of Versailles. • In 1933 Hitler withdrew from the League of Nations • In 1935 Hitler built and army and created an air force • Britain and France responded with • The “appeasement” of the Munich Conference in 1938 revealed a lack of British and French resolve.

  9. Gearing up for the War • 1936, Germany and Italy formed an alliance called the Rome – Berlin Axis • 1938, Germany invaded Austria and Czechoslovakia and took over without firing a shot • 1938, Germany signed a non-aggression pact with Russia. Why? • To avoid a two front war

  10. What was the source of conflict between Japan and China from 1931 to 1945? • nationalists • Japan lacks many natural resources • viewed a colonial empire as a solution to Japan’s dependence on foreign trade. • most of Asia’s potential colonies had been claimed, China with its vast population and resources was not colonized. • Japanese conquest • The confrontation of the Second World War began with the Japanese seizure of Manchuria by junior officers in the military. • During the next few years the Japanese sped up their rearmament, especially the building of warships.

  11. China fights back • Warfare between China and Japan was incredibly violent. • Chinese continued to fight back • In the winter of 1937-1938, Japanese troops took Nanjing, raped 20,000 women, killed 200,000 prisoners and civilians, and looted and burned the city.

  12. WWII Begins • 1939, Germany invades Poland and this starts the war • Blitzkrieg – lightning warfare used by the Germans

  13. USA Remains Neutral! • 1940, even though the USA remains neutral, they are gearing up for the war by: • Begin the draft • Turn to a “war” economy

  14. First Two Years • The axis power (bad guys) were winning the war • They have control of the following areas: • “most of Europe” • North Africa • Pacific • Great Britain now stood “alone” against the Axis Powers

  15. America Response • Lend Lease programs by Roosevelt sent 50 ships to Britain in exchange for future military bases • Dec. 7, 1941, Japan bombs Pearl Harbor in Hawaii killing 2500 Americans • Next day, Roosevelt asks congress for a declaration of war (hours later its granted)

  16. U.S. • Japanese Internment camps; result of the bombing of Pearl Harbor • The war pulled the United States out of the last stages of the Depression • Women in the United States entered industry in large numbers, and the booming economy had long-lasting positive consequences for American society.

  17. U.S.A Enters War

  18. Allies on the offensive!

  19. United Nations • Jan 1, 1942 – 26 nations for the United Nations for peace-keeping reasons • By 1945, its membership totaled 50 nations

  20. Big 3 Leaders of the Allied ForcesFDR (USA), Churchill (GB), Stalin (USSR)

  21. “Europe First” • The allied strategy was called “Europe First” • Take care of Hitler First, then Japan

  22. 2 Turning Point Battles in Europe • Fall 1942, both allied victories • Stalingrad in Europe • El Alamein in North Africa

  23. Italy surrenders! • In 1943, Allies invade Italy via Sicily and this leads to Italy’s eventual surrender

  24. D- Day • June 6, 1944- D-Day invasion of Europe • 200,000 soldiers landed on the beaches of Normandy France,

  25. Germany’s Final defeat • Last German offensive was the battle of the Bulge where they suffered a final defeat • May 8, 1945 – V.E. Day (victory in Europe)

  26. Pacific Theater of Operations

  27. War in the Pacific • “Leapfrog Strategy” – used in the Pacific to recapture “major” islands like Okinawa, Iwo Jima, etc.

  28. 2 Turning Point battles in the Pacific • Coral Sea • Midway ( destroyed Japanese Navy)

  29. The Manhattan Project:Los Alamos, NM I am become death, the shatterer of worlds! Major GeneralLesley R. Groves Dr. Robert Oppenheimer

  30. Tinian Island, 1945 Little Boy Fat Man Enola Gay Crew

  31. Col. Paul Tibbets & the A-Bomb

  32. Hiroshima – August 6, 1945 • 70,000 killed immediately. • 48,000 buildings. destroyed. • 100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.

  33. The Beginning of theAtomic Age

  34. Nagasaki – August 9, 1945 • 40,000 killed immediately. • 60,000 injured. • 100,000s died ofradiation poisoning& cancer later.

  35. Japanese A-Bomb Survivors

  36. Hiroshima Memorials

  37. V-J Day (September 2, 1945)

  38. Japanese POWs, Guam

  39. Atomic Bombs!

  40. Japanese Surrenders! • Sept. 2, 1945 – Japanese surrender aboard USS Missouri to General Mac Arthur

  41. Mein Kampf • Written by Hitler in 1930 • Outlined the Nazi philosophy • Chief among these was removal of “non-Aryans” • Particularly the Jews

  42. Anti-Semitism in Europe • Hostility towards Jews

  43. Not only in Germany but throughout Europe by 1930’s

  44. The Beginnings • Nazi party encouraged German citizens to stop patronizing Jewish business

  45. Nuremberg Laws 1935 • Stripped Jews of their German citizenship • Forbid marriage between Jews and non-Jews

  46. 1- Required Jews to register property

  47. 2- Dismissed Jewish Civil Employees and Managers

  48. 3- Banned Jewish Doctors from treating non-Jews

  49. 4- All Germans given identity cards • Jewish cards marked with red letter “J” • Gave all Jews middle name of “Sarah” or Israel • Easier for police to ID Jews