Chapter 31 Review and Discussion
What Caused WWII? • Great Depression • Failure of the League of Nation to police the world • 3 dictators came to power at about the same time • 1923- Benito Mussolini - Italy • 1930’s – Hideki Tojo - Japan • 1933 – Adolf Hitler (Nazi party) - Germany
The Great Depression in the 1930s • Stock market crash of 1929 • Consumption and production around the world declined. • Unemployment rose drastically. • American banks called in overseas loans to offset their losses. • Smoot-Hawley tariff • Highest import duty in American history • In retaliation, other countries raised their tariffs • resulting in decreased export industries and additional reductions in world trade. • Effects of the depression on nations • France and Britain were to some extent insulated from the world economy by their overseas colonies. • Japan and Germany suffered much more because they relied on exports to pay for imports of food and fuel • South Africa’s economy boomed because Depression made gold more valuable • Radical reforms and leaders • United States enacted sweeping New Deal legislation, and radical politicians came to power in Germany, Italy, and Japan.
Explain the reasons for the Soviet Union’s economic success during the 1930s • Stalin’s goal • Transform the USSR into an industrial nation and increase the power of the communist party • First Five-Year Plan • increased Soviet military and industrial might by developing electric power and heavy industry (iron, coal, steel, and machinery) • Collective agriculture • Turned small private farms into collective farms • Collectivization transformed Soviet rural society, imposing an urban-industrial way of life on the peasantry. • Rebellion among the kulaks resulted in widespread starvation and hardship because they burned their crops and killed their livestock • Second Five Year Plan (1933-1937) • After Nazi Germany’s rise to power, the Second Five-Year Plan abandoned its goal of producing consumer goods and focused instead on military expansion. • Women in particular entered employment and careers formerly denied them.
Similarities of the Axis Powers • State is “all powerful” • Individuals give up their freedoms • Believed in using force to expand the boundaries of their countries
Explain the rise of fascism in Europe and the events leading up to the Second World War. • Fascism • Extreme nationalism • result of social and economic instability caused by World War I and the Depression. • Mussolini and Hitler • appealed to unemployed veterans and violent youths. • Economic well-being outweighed a loss of liberty • Il Duce (the leader) became prime minister and Installed Fascist party members in all government jobs and crushed all opposition • Hitler became chancellor in 1933; Fuhrer (leader) 1934 • Hitler also emphasized Aryan racial superiority (Germans, Britons, Scandinavian) and blamed Jews for Germany’s postwar troubles.
Warning signs • In 1931, Japan attacked Manchuria • In 1935, Italy attacked Ethiopia • Hitler tested French and British resolve by repeatedly violating the Treaty of Versailles. • In 1933 Hitler withdrew from the League of Nations • In 1935 Hitler built and army and created an air force • Britain and France responded with • The “appeasement” of the Munich Conference in 1938 revealed a lack of British and French resolve.
Gearing up for the War • 1936, Germany and Italy formed an alliance called the Rome – Berlin Axis • 1938, Germany invaded Austria and Czechoslovakia and took over without firing a shot • 1938, Germany signed a non-aggression pact with Russia. Why? • To avoid a two front war
What was the source of conflict between Japan and China from 1931 to 1945? • nationalists • Japan lacks many natural resources • viewed a colonial empire as a solution to Japan’s dependence on foreign trade. • most of Asia’s potential colonies had been claimed, China with its vast population and resources was not colonized. • Japanese conquest • The confrontation of the Second World War began with the Japanese seizure of Manchuria by junior officers in the military. • During the next few years the Japanese sped up their rearmament, especially the building of warships.
China fights back • Warfare between China and Japan was incredibly violent. • Chinese continued to fight back • In the winter of 1937-1938, Japanese troops took Nanjing, raped 20,000 women, killed 200,000 prisoners and civilians, and looted and burned the city.
WWII Begins • 1939, Germany invades Poland and this starts the war • Blitzkrieg – lightning warfare used by the Germans
USA Remains Neutral! • 1940, even though the USA remains neutral, they are gearing up for the war by: • Begin the draft • Turn to a “war” economy
First Two Years • The axis power (bad guys) were winning the war • They have control of the following areas: • “most of Europe” • North Africa • Pacific • Great Britain now stood “alone” against the Axis Powers
America Response • Lend Lease programs by Roosevelt sent 50 ships to Britain in exchange for future military bases • Dec. 7, 1941, Japan bombs Pearl Harbor in Hawaii killing 2500 Americans • Next day, Roosevelt asks congress for a declaration of war (hours later its granted)
U.S. • Japanese Internment camps; result of the bombing of Pearl Harbor • The war pulled the United States out of the last stages of the Depression • Women in the United States entered industry in large numbers, and the booming economy had long-lasting positive consequences for American society.
United Nations • Jan 1, 1942 – 26 nations for the United Nations for peace-keeping reasons • By 1945, its membership totaled 50 nations
“Europe First” • The allied strategy was called “Europe First” • Take care of Hitler First, then Japan
2 Turning Point Battles in Europe • Fall 1942, both allied victories • Stalingrad in Europe • El Alamein in North Africa
Italy surrenders! • In 1943, Allies invade Italy via Sicily and this leads to Italy’s eventual surrender
D- Day • June 6, 1944- D-Day invasion of Europe • 200,000 soldiers landed on the beaches of Normandy France,
Germany’s Final defeat • Last German offensive was the battle of the Bulge where they suffered a final defeat • May 8, 1945 – V.E. Day (victory in Europe)
War in the Pacific • “Leapfrog Strategy” – used in the Pacific to recapture “major” islands like Okinawa, Iwo Jima, etc.
2 Turning Point battles in the Pacific • Coral Sea • Midway ( destroyed Japanese Navy)
The Manhattan Project:Los Alamos, NM I am become death, the shatterer of worlds! Major GeneralLesley R. Groves Dr. Robert Oppenheimer
Tinian Island, 1945 Little Boy Fat Man Enola Gay Crew
Hiroshima – August 6, 1945 • 70,000 killed immediately. • 48,000 buildings. destroyed. • 100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.
Nagasaki – August 9, 1945 • 40,000 killed immediately. • 60,000 injured. • 100,000s died ofradiation poisoning& cancer later.
Japanese Surrenders! • Sept. 2, 1945 – Japanese surrender aboard USS Missouri to General Mac Arthur
Mein Kampf • Written by Hitler in 1930 • Outlined the Nazi philosophy • Chief among these was removal of “non-Aryans” • Particularly the Jews
Anti-Semitism in Europe • Hostility towards Jews
The Beginnings • Nazi party encouraged German citizens to stop patronizing Jewish business
Nuremberg Laws 1935 • Stripped Jews of their German citizenship • Forbid marriage between Jews and non-Jews
4- All Germans given identity cards • Jewish cards marked with red letter “J” • Gave all Jews middle name of “Sarah” or Israel • Easier for police to ID Jews