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VisText Team. Jonathan Webster Professor and Head, Department of Chinese, Translation and Linguistics, City University of Hong Kong  John Lee Assistant Professor, Department of Chinese, Translation and Linguistics, City University of Hong Kong Joe Chan Senior Research Assistant

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vistext team
VisText Team
  • Jonathan Webster
    • Professor and Head, Department of Chinese, Translation and Linguistics, City University of Hong Kong 
  • John Lee
    • Assistant Professor, Department of Chinese, Translation and Linguistics, City University of Hong Kong
  • Joe Chan
    • Senior Research Assistant
  • We gratefully knowledge assistance of Kim Wong and Victor Yan
slide3
Aim

We aim to take text visualization beyond a word-based focus, making it possible to visualize multiple layers of syntactic and semantic patterning across multilingual collections of text data.

word clouds
word clouds

Word cloud for the

book of Proverbs

http://wordle.net

Word cloud for the book

Of Revelation

http://wordle.net

“word clouds” of two texts visually highlight their differences

slide5

Professor Lewis Lancaster, UC Berkeley

Blue-Dots project within the “The Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative”

slide6

3-D Text Corpus View. 

  • Each character in the text is represented by a single ‘Blue Dot’.
  • Planes of ‘Blue Dots’ represent individual printing blocks.

from a presentation given by:

Michael Buckland

Co-Director, ECAI, I&AS

Emeritus Professor, School of Information

UCB Libraries Arts and Humanities Council

Feb 5, 2009

“The Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative”

slide7

3-D Text Corpus View.

Search results are highlighted in contrasting colors.

from a presentation given by:

Michael Buckland

Co-Director, ECAI, I&AS

Emeritus Professor, School of Information

UCB Libraries Arts and Humanities Council

Feb 5, 2009

“The Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative”

slide8

from a presentation given by:

Michael Buckland

Co-Director, ECAI, I&AS

Emeritus Professor, School of Information

UCB Libraries Arts and Humanities Council

Feb 5, 2009

“The Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative”

slide9

from a presentation given by:

Michael Buckland

Co-Director, ECAI, I&AS

Emeritus Professor, School of Information

UCB Libraries Arts and Humanities Council

Feb 5, 2009

“The Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative”

slide10

Our current digital collection of texts using

  • Treebanks to support syntactic structure search
  • Word alignments to support cross-lingual retrieval
treebanks
Treebanks
  • Greek NT
    • Pragmatic Resource of Old Indo-European Languages [Haug & Johndal 08]
  • Hebrew Bible
    • Groves Center for Advanced Biblical Research [Wu & Lowery 06]
    • Septuagint: automatic generation from prosody markers [Lee 10]
  • Qur’an
    • University of Leeds [Dukes et al 10]
  • Buddhist canon
    • In progress

PRED

<empty>

SUB

XOBJ

cum

gratia

ATR

OBL

Domini …

omnibus

slide12

Greek-Chinese word alignment for the New Testament [Wong, Lee and Tang, in progress]

  • Allow search query in Chinese and visualization in Greek
analyze visualize interpret
Analyze – Visualize – Interpret
  • How can one discover patterns from such data?
    • Analyze
      • What kinds of annotations are required?
      • How to interrogate the text?
    • Visualize
      • How to present results returned by the queries to facilitate interpretation?
slide15

ALiVE, the Applied Laboratory for Interactive Visualization and Embodiment, is an interdisciplinary research initiative of the City University of Hong Kong School of Creative Media. It is an incubator and innovations showcase for new forms of creativity, whose challenge led programs are at the cutting edge of digital media in society.

database design
Database design

Extensible Layers

  • Foundation Layer
  • raw words

1) Treebank

2) Systemic functional analysis. …

1) Translation Data

2) Image Links

3) Geo Info. …

wordings

slide17

STEP 1 – clause analysis – divide into clauses

STEP2 – identify Finite-tense

STEP3 – identify whether the main clause is interrogative {Y|N; WH}, declarative, or imperative.

.

<clause>

<interrogative-Y|N>

<finite><present>Am</present> </finite>

<subject>I</subject>

<neg>not</neg>

<complement>free</complement>

</interrogative-Y|N>

</clause>

slide18

STEP 4 – Identify process (by type), participant (by role) and circumstance

.

<clause>

<relational>

<attributive>Am</attributive>

</relational>

<carrier>I</carrier>

not

<attribute>free</attribute>

</clause>

<clause>

<relational>

<identifying>Am</identifying>

</relational>

<identified>I</identified>

not

<identifier>an apostle</identifier>

</clause>

slide19

STEP 5 – Identify logical relations

.

<clause>

<sub-β>

<declarative>

<theme.textual><conj-conc>Even though<conj-conc></theme.textual>

<theme.topical><subject>I</subject></theme.topical>

<modal.aux>may</modal.aux>

notbe an apostle to others,

</declarative>

</sub-β>

<sub-α>

<declarative>

<theme.intpl> <modal.adjt>surely</modal.adjt> </theme.intpl>

<theme.topical><subject>I</subject></theme.topical>

am to you!

</declarative>

</sub- α>

</clause>

<clause>

<sub-1> Who plants a vineyard </sub-1>

<sub-2> and does not eat of its grapes? </sub-2>

</clause>

slide20

STEP 6 – Identify modal adjuncts/auxiliaries

.

<clause>

<sub-β>

<declarative>

<theme.textual><conj-conc>Even though<conj-conc></theme.textual>

<theme.topical><subject>I</subject></theme.topical>

<modal.aux>may</modal.aux>

notbe an apostle to others,

</declarative>

</sub-β>

<sub-α>

<declarative>

<theme.intpl> <modal.adjt>surely</modal.adjt> </theme.intpl>

<theme.topical><subject>I</subject></theme.topical>

am to you!

</declarative>

</sub- α>

</clause>

<clause>

<sub-1>Who plants a vineyard</sub-1>

<sub-2>and does not eat of its grapes?</sub-2>

</clause>

slide21

STEP 7 – Identify Theme structure

.

<clause>

<sub-β>

<declarative>

<theme.textual><conj-conc>Even though<conj-conc></theme.textual>

<theme.topical><subject>I</subject></theme.topical>

<modal.aux>may</modal.aux>

notbe an apostle to others,

</declarative>

</sub-β>

<sub-α>

<declarative>

<theme.intpl> <modal.adjt>surely</modal.adjt> </theme.intpl>

<theme.topical><subject>I</subject></theme.topical>

am to you!

</declarative>

</sub- α>

</clause>

<clause>

<sub-1>Who plants a vineyard</sub-1>

<sub-2>and does not eat of its grapes?</sub-2>

</clause>

slide23

1 Corinthians 9

The Rights of an Apostle

1Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Have I not seen Jesus our Lord? Are you not the result of my work in the Lord? 2Even though I may not be an apostle to others, surely I am to you! For you are the seal of my apostleship in the Lord.  3This is my defense to those who sit in judgment on me. 4Don't we have the right to food and drink? 5Don't we have the right to take a believing wife along with us, as do the other apostles and the Lord's brothers and Cephas? 6Or is it only I and Barnabas who must work for a living?

7Who serves as a soldier at his own expense? Who plants a vineyard and does not eat of its grapes? Who tends a flock and does not drink of the milk?

….

The Tapestry of Early Christian Discourse

by Vernon K Robbins

(Routledge 1996).

.

slide24

1: AmInot free?

Am Inot an apostle?

Have I not seen Jesus our Lord?

Are you not my workmanship in the Lord?

.

4: Do we not have the right to our food and drink?

[Greek – None of you think we don’t have the right, do you?]

5: Do we not have the right to be accompanied by a wife, as the other apostles and the brothers of the Lord and Cephas?

6: Is it only Barnabas and I who have no right to refrain from working for a living?

7: Who serves as a soldier at his own expense?

Who plants a vineyard without eating any of its fruit?

Who tends a flock withoutgetting some of the milk?

slide27

.

supporting those rights

slide28

.

  • arguing from the contrary:
    • We deserve it.
    • We have every right to receive it.
    • But we don’t take it.
slide29

.

supporting his argument

slide32

case study: ‘proclaim’ + Obj

In verse 14, Paul combines the verb ‘to proclaim’ (translated here as “preach”) with ‘the gospel’ used as a noun.

According to Bible scholars, Paul creates a rather rare combination of this verb meaning ‘proclaim’ with the noun for ‘the gospel’.

 But we did not use this right. On the contrary, we put up with anything rather than hinder the gospel of Christ. 13Don't you know that those who work in the temple get their food from the temple, and those who serve at the altar share in what is offered on the altar? 14In the same way, the Lord has commanded that those who preach the gospel should receive their living from the gospel.

slide33

case study: ‘proclaim’ + Obj

Investigate further into the use of the word “proclaim”

Search for nouns that are objects of the word proclaim

  • Root = κηρύσσω
  • Dependency = “obj”
slide34

case study: ‘proclaim’ + Obj

  • “Proclaim” (katagello) frequently takes objects such as “word” (logos), “way” (hodos), “Christ” (christos)
  • But it is used only once with “gospel” (euaggelion), in the text studied in the previous scenario
    • Unique to Pauline discourse
case study conditionals
case study: conditionals

Use of conditionals in John’s gospel:

  • frequency and type of conditionals (more than in the other gospels?);
  • comparing usage of conditionals in John’s gospel with those in 1 John (same author) and Galatians (Pauline epistle with the highest frequency of conditionals)

(PhD dissertation topic: R. Fong)

multilingual search
multilingual search
  • How does the word “life” occur in the New Testament
    • Enter “life” for keyword search
    • The English-Greek word alignment [pending approval from Tyndale] gives three Greek equivalences: “zoe”, “psyche” and “bios”
multilingual search1
multilingual search

Visualize the distribution of these three “life”-words

  • Which appears most frequently in the Bible?
  • Where do they occur?
multilingual search2
multilingual search

How does the Buddhist canon use the word “life”?

slide42

The way forward…

  • Need to explore ways of identifying and visualizing depth in lexico-grammatical patterns, i.e. requiring innovative approaches to visualization of semantic patterns.
slide43

gods can die

1 I have seen powerful men2 Undo themselves, keep two realities3 One for minor friends, one for the powers that be,4 The really powerful. Such people take a role5 Supporting managers of state,6 Accept an essential part in some minor project.7 But after a bit of duty,8 That makes them fester with intentions,9 They play the major figure to old friends.

10

11 We understand and try to seek a balance in the dark12 To know the private from the public monument,13 To find our way between the private and the public argument14 Or what can be said or if a thing is meant15 Or meant to make amends? is generous or mean?

16

17 The casual word, the easiness, the quick straight answer,18 The humane delay, the lack of cautiousness19 That gave ample laughter to our evenings20 Are too simple for these days of power21 Whose nature is to hint not state.22 So when one has a chance to talk the conversation23 Hesitates on the brink of momentous things;24 He ponders ...25 Suggesting by some unremark26 There was much more to be said.

27

  • 28 It's a pity: good men who seek to serve29 Bind themselves unto a cause,30 Then use the fate of nations as a rationale31 To take their friends aside,32 To lead themselves into some history.33 We gain uncertain statesmen: many lose a friend.
  • 34
  • But I am glad that others are powerful with
  • compassion, 36 Who see before we do what troubles us37 And help in kindness, take ignorance in tow.38 If not for such we lose our gods39 Who lived but now are dying in our friends.

Edwin Thumboo

Emeritus Professor

National University of Singapore

slide44

gods can die

I have seen powerful menUndo themselves, keeptwo realitiesOne for minor friends, one for the powers that be,The really powerful.Such people take a roleSupporting managers of state,Accept an essential part in some minor project.But after a bit of duty,That makes them fester with intentions,They play the major figure to old friends.

1 +2

1 =2

I have seen powerful men

(powerful men)

undo

themselves

1 +2

1 =2

(powerful men)

keeptwo

realities

one for

minor

friends

one for

the powers

that be

the really

powerful

slide45

gods can die

We understand and try to seek a balance in the darkTo know the private from the public monument,To findour way between the private and the public argumentOr what can be saidor if a thing is meantOr meant to make amends? is generous or mean?

1 =2

1 +2

1 +2

1 +2

We understand

1 +2

and try to seek a balance in the dark

To know the private from the public monument

To findour way between the private and the public argument

1 +2

Or what can be said

1 =2

or if a thing is meant

is generous or mean?

Or meant to make amends?

slide46

The way forward…

  • Need to explore ways of identifying and visualizing depth in lexico-grammatical patterns, i.e. requiring innovative approaches to visualization of semantic patterns.
  • Implement intelligent searching of patterns
  • Develop as plug-and-play to facilitate wiki-like contributions (of texts and analyses) to VisText collection.