A Coevolution Scheme for Supermassive
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A Coevolution Scheme for Supermassive Black Holes and Galactic Bulges. Masayuki UMEMURA Center for Computational Physics, University of Tsukuba, Japan. Collaborators Nozomu KAWAKATSU Masao MORI Jun’ichi SATO. Black Hole-Bulge Correlation. 1. BH-Bulge Mass Relation

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Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

A Coevolution Scheme for Supermassive

Black Holes and Galactic Bulges

Masayuki UMEMURA

Center for Computational Physics, University of Tsukuba, Japan

Collaborators

Nozomu KAWAKATSU

Masao MORI

Jun’ichi SATO


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

Black Hole-Bulge Correlation

1.

BH-Bulge Mass Relation

 MBH /Mbulge  0.001

(Kormendy & Richstone 1995; Richstone 1995; Magorrian et al. 1998;

Merrifield et al. 2000; Kormendy 2000; Merritt & Ferrarese 2001)

 MBHMbulge1.53

MBH /Mbulge  0.005(MV-22) ; MBH /Mbulge  0.0005 (MV-18)

(Laor 2001)

MBH- Relation

MBH, =4.72 (Ferrarese & Merritt 2000; Merrit & Ferrarese 2000)

MBH, =3.75 (Gebhardt et al. 2000)

MBH, =4.02±0.32 (Tremaine et al. 2002)

MBH /Mdisk  0.005 for Disk component (Salucci et al. 2000; Sarzi et al. 2000)

2.

3.


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

Why does SMBH mass linearly correlate with bulge mass ?

What is the basic physics to determine

MBH /Mbulge  O(10-3)?

Present Prediction

( = 0.007 : H  He nuclear fusion energy

conversion efficiency)

Richstone 1995


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

Angular Momentum

Extraction

Relativistic Radiation Hydrodynamics

(Umemura et al. 1997; Fukue et al. 1997; Umemura et al. 1998)

e.g. Poynting-Robertson effect

in solar system


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

Momentum loss

Sato & Umemura, in preparation

radiation field

velocity

cold gas


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

SMBH Formation by Radiation Drag in Bulge

Umemura, 2001, ApJ, 560, L29

Kawakatsu & Umemura, 2002, MNRAS, 329, 572

Angular Momentum Extraction

Bulge

L*

photon number

conservation

(: optical depth by dust)

R

Mass Accretion Rate

MDO

(Massive Dark Object)


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

Optically-Thick Regime

Mass Accretion Rate

Radiation Drag Time-Scale

Mass of MDO


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

Mass Accretion by Radiation Drag

MDO-Bulge Mass Ratio

( = 0.007,  = net stellar conversion eficiency)


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

BH Growth

Radiation Drag Growth

M

L=LEdd

MMDO

Eddington Growth

MBH

t

tcross


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

SMBH to Bulge Mass Correlation

Present Prediction


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

Rees Diagram

(1984)

radiation drag


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

MBH- Relation


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

MBH- Relation

Present Prediction

Tremaine et al. 2002


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

Why small BHs in disks?

 Disks without AGNs

 Sy1s

 Sy2s

 NLSy1s

0.03

0.1

1

Kawakatu & Umemura 2003

submitted to ApJ


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

Geometrical Dilution of Radiation Fields

Elliptical Galaxies

Disk Galaxies

low drag efficiency

high drag efficiency


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

Sy1

with

Starburst

 NLS1s

Sy2 with starburst

 Disks

without AGNs

 Sy1s

 Sy2s

 NLSy1s

Present Prediction

0.03

0.1

1


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

Coevolution of SMBHs and Bulges

 SMBHs have been thought to be the central engine of AGNs.

z=6.3 QSO  tBH109yr

 QSO hosts are mostly luminous, well evolved elliptical galaxies.

 Recently, the demography of galactic centers have shown a

tight correlation between SMBHs and galactic bulges.

The formation and evolution of SMBH, bulge, and QSO are mutually related.


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

Mbulge(star)

MBH

MMDO

L*

ULIRG

QSO

LLAGN

>1

<1

LAGN

tw

tcross(109-10yr)

t

• There is time delay between L* and LAGN. LAGN/L* increases until tcross .

• LAGN is peaked around tcross.(QSO phase)

• MBH /Mbulge increases with LAGN or age until tcross .


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

Radiation Hydrodynamic Growth of BH via Radiation Drag

+

Chemical Evolution of Bulge

PEGASE(Foic & Rocca-Volmerange 1997)

Evolutionary spectral synthesis code

Kawakatu, Umemura & Mori, 2003, ApJ, 583, 85


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

Optical Depth Evolution

Galactic wind

100

10

U

B

1

V



K

0.1

0.01

0.001

Time [yr]


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

Luminosity Evolution

>1

<1

Galactic wind

Luminosity [L]

LLAGN

ULIRG

QSO

Proto-QSO

Time [yr]

• LAGN /Lbulgeexhibits a AGN-dominant peak around 109yr. (QSO phase)

• QSO phase is preceded by an optically thin, host-dominant “proto-QSO” phase.

• Proto-QSO phase is preceded by an optically thick, host-dominant phase. (ULIRGs)


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

Emission Line Width

(Kaspi et al.1997; Loar et al. 1997; Peterson et al. 2000)

5000

<1

>1

1500

1000

vBLR[km/s]

ULIRG

LLAGN

QSO

Proto-QSO

100

Time [yr]

 In Proto-QSO phase, the width of broad emission lines is less than 1500km/s.

Proto-QSO = NLQSO1 = Growing BH phase


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

“ACoevolution Scheme for SMBHs and Galactic Bulges“

Proto-QSO

QSO

LBG

ULIRG

LLAGN

<1

<1

>1

<1

<1

Bulge

enshrouded BH

Type 2 QSO

Nucleus

10-100 pc

growing BH

time


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

Summary on BH Formation

• MBH /Mbulge  0.14  =0.001: Radiation drag growth

(key physics: =0.007)

• MBH - Relation: CDM spectrum

• MBH /Mbulge  0.005 for Disks: Geometrical dilution


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

Summary on Coevolution

• LAGN /Lbulgeexhibits a AGN-dominant peak around 109yr. (QSO phase)

MBH /Mbulge  10-4-10-3 in QSO phase (key physics:  = 0.007)

• QSO phase is preceded by a host-dominant “proto-QSO” phase.

MBH /Mbulge < 10-5 -10-4 in proto-QSO (growing BH phase)

Proto-QSOs are narrow line QSOs.

Their properties are similar to those of high redshift radio galaxies.

• Proto-QSO phase is preceded by an optically thick, host-dominant phase. (ULIRGs)


Masayuki umemura center for computational physics university of tsukuba japan

Thank you

for attention