Power of endorphin by placebo effect
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Power of Endorphin by Placebo effect. Group 3. HOPE vs. EPOH group. HOPE group: 74% of patients responded to the drugs. EPOH group: only 22% of patients responded to the same drugs.

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Power of endorphin by placebo effect

Power of Endorphin by Placebo effect

Group 3.


Hope vs epoh group
HOPE vs. EPOH group

HOPE group: 74% of patients responded to the drugs.

EPOH group: only 22% of patients responded to the same drugs.

 ONLY difference between HOPE and EPOH group was the title of the drugs.


Mesmerism
Mesmerism

  • Wakeful state of focused beliefHeightened relaxation andsuggestibility, connecting each other through magnetic fluid.

     In the movie, with the Mesmer’s therapeutic

    method, patients actually experienced easing pain

    and decreasing symptoms.


Placebo effect
Placebo effect

HOPE vs. EPOH case

Mesmer's therapeutic method

can be almost explained by ‘placebo effect’.


Placebo effect1
Placebo effect

Placebo means it is a substance with no specific

therapeutic activity.

Placebo effect occurs when a patient's symptoms

are altered in some way by a treatment, due to

the individual psychological expectation

suggestion from an authority figure

believingthat it will work.

.


Placebo effect2
Placebo effect

Placebo means ‘I will please him’ , which indicates

a belief that the effect was due to a subconscious

desire of the patient to please the doctor.

  • Placebo effect is in the patient, not the doctor


Nocebo effects
Nocebo effects

  • Due to the subject's pessimistic belief and expectation that the inert drug would produce harmful results. (even though these responses had not been chemically generated.)


Steps of placebo effect
Steps of placebo effect

Trusting

the doctor

ExpectationBelief

Pain

Anxiety

Symptoms

would be

decreased

Biologicalprocess


Biological process
Biological process

  • Endorphin

    • chemical compounds that occur naturally in the brain and have similar pain-relieving properties to morphine, thought to be involved in the control of emotional responses.


Placebo effect in pain control

Physiological aspect (PAG)

Injection of placebo

Secretion of endogenous opioid

Activation of opiate receptors

Reduction of pain

Psychological aspect

Morphine injected : 70%

Placebo injected : 35%

Placebo effect in pain control

Injection of Naloxone

(opiate antagonist)


Biological process1
Biological process

  • The study conducted at the University of Michigan

provided the first direct evidence that the brain’s

own pain-relieving chemicals,

endorphins play a role in the placebo effect.



In summary
In summary

Expectation and belief by patient him/herself

(HOPE group, Mesmer’s method, Placebo effect)

Raising biological process

(Secretion of Endorphin, etc)

Symptom, pain are eased