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Introduction and History of Psychology. Chapter 1. History of Psychology. What Is Psychology – and What Is It Not? Psychology is a broad field, with many specialties, but fundamentally, psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes . http ://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uuvGh\_n3I\_M.

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history of psychology
History of Psychology
  • What Is Psychology – and What Is It Not?
    • Psychology is a broad field, with many specialties, but fundamentally, psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes.
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uuvGh_n3I_M
history of psychology1
History of Psychology
  • What Is Psychology – and What Is It Not?
    • Psychology :
      • The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
    • Psychology is not:
      • Mere speculation about human nature
      • A body of folk wisdom about people that “everybody knows” to be true
what is psychology and what is it not
What Is Psychology – and What Is It Not?
  • Psychology disputes unfounded claims from pseudo psychology.
    • Horoscopes, “false” rediscovered memories.
  • Pseudo psychology –

Erroneous assertions of practices set forth as being scientific psychology.

historical roots
Historical Roots
  • What are Psychology’s historical roots?
historical approaches
Historical Approaches
  • Structuralism: focused on revealing the most basic “structures” of the mind.
    • Mid 1800’s: Charles Darwin
      • He suggested a biological kinship btw humans and animals.
    • Chemistry: Whilem Wundt
      • Scientist had noticed patterns in properties of the chemical elements that led them to develop the periodic table
      • Wundt wondered could a similar process be applied to simplify our understanding of the mid?
wilhem wundt
Wilhem Wundt
  • 1879 Wundt established the first institute for psychological research at the University of Leipzig.
  • Wundt and his students began to conduct studies on what they supposed to be the “elements” of consciousness.
    • Sensation and perception, memory, emotion, etc.
  • Introspection: process of reporting on one’s own conscious mental experience.
historical approaches1
Historical Approaches
  • Functionalism: Focus on Function
  • William James:
    • Critic of Wundt
    • Argued that Psychology should include the function of Consciousness, not just the structure.
    • “Stream of Consciousness” as a mental process that had no static structure, but was continually flowing, changing, and interacting with the environment.
      • Adapting
historical approaches2
Historical Approaches
  • Gestalt Psychology: Focus on the WHOLE instead of the parts.
    • Opposite of structuralism.
    • Gestalt Psychologists were interested in how we construct “perceptual wholes”.
      • Such as our perception of a face.
    • Relied on introspection.
historical approaches3
Historical Approaches
  • Behaviorism: Eliminate the mind and focus on BEHAVIOR
    • John B. Watson*:
      • Argued that a true and objective science of psychology should deal solely with observable events:
      • Stimuli from the environment and the organism’s response.
      • Behaviorism should be the science of BEHAVIOR not the mind.
      • Cared nothing about what people were thinking, instead they wanted to know how people would act.
historical approaches4
Historical Approaches
  • Psychoanalysis: Focus on the UNCONSCIOUS mind.
    • Sigmund Freud *
      • Asserted that mental disorders arise from conflicts in the unconscious mind.
      • Psychoanalytic: method of treating mental disorders.
      • *Still a force today
modern approaches
Modern Approaches
  • Nine main perspectives characterize modern psychology:
    • Biological
    • Developmental
    • Cognitive
    • Psychodynamic
    • Humanistic
    • Behavioral
    • Socio-cultural
    • Evolutionary
    • Trait
biological perspective
Biological Perspective
  • View of Human Nature:
    • We are complex systems that respond to hereditary and environmental influences.
  • What Determines Behavior:
    • Neural structures, biochemistry, and inborn responses to external cues.
      • Our physical makeup and the operation of our brain influences our personality and behavior.
  • What does this mean? Use your own words.
developmental perspective
Developmental Perspective
  • View of Human Nature:
    • We undergo predictable patterns of change throughout our lives.
      • Ex: Childhood, adolescence, adulthood.
  • What Determines Behavior:
    • Interaction between heredity and environment.
      • Ex: Nature v. Nurture
  • Describe this perspective in your own words.
cognitive perspective
Cognitive Perspective
  • View of Human Nature:
    • People are information-processing systems.
      • mental processes like sensation, perception, learning, memory, and language, all influence behavior.
  • What Determines Behavior:
    • Mental interpretation of our experience.
  • Describe this perspective in your own words.
psychodynamic perspective
Psychodynamic Perspective
  • View of Human Nature:
    • We are driven by dark forces of the unconscious.
      • FREUD! (unconscious, sexual, desires influence behavior)
  • What Determines Behavior:
    • Unconscious needs, conflicts, repressed memories, and childhood experiences.
      • Emphasizes the treatment of mental disorders over scientific research.
  • Describe this approach in your OWN words.
humanistic perspective
Humanistic Perspective
  • View of Human Nature:
    • Emphasizes human growth and potential.
      • Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers
      • Perfect Flower
  • What Determines Behavior:
    • The influence of self-concept, perceptions, and interpersonal relationships, and on need for personal growth.
  • Describe this perspective in your OWN words.
behavioral perspective
Behavioral Perspective
  • View of Human Nature:
    • Behavior is primarily shaped by learning. We should look for the causes of behavior in our environment rather than in the biology of our mind.
      • John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner
  • What Determines Behavior:
    • Stimulus cues and our history of rewards and punishments.
      • Study the person from the outside only, focusing only on what they can directly observe.
    • Describe this perspective in your OWN words.
sociocultural perspective
Sociocultural Perspective
  • View of Human Nature:
    • People are social animals, so human behavior must be interpreted in social context.
  • What Determines Behavior:
    • Cultures, social norms and expectations, social learning.
    • How are social influences different across cultures? Give examples!
  • Describe in your OWN words!
evolutionary sociobiological perspective
Evolutionary/Sociobiological Perspective
  • View of Human Nature:
    • Behavior is developed and adapted over time.
      • Charles Darwin
  • What Determines Behavior:
    • Natural selection, survival of the fittest.
      • What does this mean?
  • Describe in your OWN words!
trait perspective
Trait Perspective
  • View of Human Nature:
    • Individual differences result from differences in our underlying patterns of stable characteristics.
      • Examples: Laid back, moody, what else?
  • What Determines Behavior:
    • Each person’s unique combination of traits.
  • Describe in YOUR own words.
think pair and share
Think, Pair, and Share
  • Which approach do you like or agree with most, why?
  • Which approach do you dislike the most? Why?
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