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VCE History: Unit 3

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  1. VCE History: Unit 3 Opposition to Tsarism: Movements

  2. Political movements – parties, clubs or associations (e.g. the Bolsheviks, Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionary Party). • Military movements – requirement of a military organisation to fight their battles to overthrow existing government (e.g. Red Army and Cheka). • Popular movements – often spontaneous and less-organised groups of people who provide the mass support needed for revolutionaries to be successful. Types of movements

  3. The Great Cat Massacre

  4. The spread of Marxist principles throughout Russia in the 1890s led to George Plekhanov to found this political party in 1898. • In 1903 Lenin confronted Plekhanov and the Iskra co-editor Martov about the organisation of the SDWP. • This led to a vote where the SDWP was split into two factions, the Bolsheviks (majority) led by Lenin and the Mensheviks (minority). They later (in 1912) became separate political parties. Social Democratic Workers Party

  5. This ‘populist movement’ (see diagram) grew out of the economic reforms of Alexander II in the 1860s (abolition of serfdom in 1861) and was based on agrarian (agriculture) socialism (distribution). • Violent section known as ‘The People’s Will’ formed in 1879 practised terrorism and assassination. Lenin’s brother Aleksandr was executed for being part of a plot to kill the Tsar Alexander II. • Leaders included Victor Chernov and later Alexander Kerensky, who became Prime Minister in 1917 after the initial revolution. • Believed in socialising all privately owned land and re-distributing it to democratically organised communes. Very popular with the peasants. Socialist Revolutionary Party

  6. Observe the comparison table on page 35 and provide a list of similarities and differences between the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. What’s the difference

  7. 1) 2) 3) 4) Analysis Activity 1

  8. Argued for change of existing system (the Dumas) rather than overthrow. Wanted to limit the power of the Tsar. • Included Kadets (Constitutional Democratic Party)and the Octobrists (who formed out of the manifesto written by Tsar Nicholas after Bloody Sunday in 1905). Popular with industrialists and landowners (because they would keep the status quo). Liberal reforming parties

  9. Police repression (Okhrana) made voicing discontent difficult. • Division – the parties were not united to fight against the existing structure. • Cohesion – the parties didn’t work together to convince the majority of the population that they were a better option. • Isolation – the size and diversity of Russia made it difficult for revolutionary propaganda to be distributed. • Concession – whenever the Tsar/Dumas made a reform it diffused tension and softened opposition (see 1905). Obstacles