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INTRODUCTION TO INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION PowerPoint Presentation
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INTRODUCTION TO INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION

INTRODUCTION TO INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION

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INTRODUCTION TO INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION

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  1. COMM 321 INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS INTRODUCTIONTOINTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION

  2. Why StudyIntercultural Communication

  3. “The study of intercultural communication is about the study of communication that involves cultural group membership differences. It is about acquiring the necessary knowledge and dynamic skills to manage such differences appropriately and effectively. It is also about developing a creative mind-set to see things from different angles without rigid pre-judgement” (Ting-Toomey & Chung, 2005, p. 3). Defining the study of I.C.

  4. Self-awareness Demographic Reasons Workplace & Economic Globalization Creative Problem Solving Fostering Global and Intrapersonal Peace Why Study I. C.?

  5. One of the most important reasons for studying intercultural communication is that it increases our awareness of our own culture, our cultural identity and cultural background. And it helps us avoid ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism is a tendency to think our own culture is superior to other cultures. 1. Self-awareness

  6. Another important reason to study intercultural communication are the constant demographic shifts countries and communities experience. For example: immigrants, refugees or undocumented individuals. 2.Demographic Changes

  7. 4 out of 5 jobs in the U.S. are generated from international business (Ting-Toomey & Chung, 2005). To effectively compete in a global market, (we) must understand how business and cultural practices are conducted in other countries (Martin & Nakayama, 2010). 3. Workplace & Economic Globalization

  8. According to creativity research, we learn more from people who are different than us than from those who are similar to us. (Sternberg, 1999 as cited in Ting-Toomey &Chung, 2005) Small group research suggests the quality of ideas produced in ethnically diverse groups have significantly higher outcomes than ethnically homogeneous groups. This is due to the synergistic perspective. Synergistic perspective means combining the best of all cultural approaches in solving a workplace problem. 4.Creative Problem Solving

  9. R – E – S – P – E – C – T • What does it mean for you: • To show respect? • To be shown respect? • Does everyone want to be treated the way you want to be treated? • Respect is fundamental to peace, global and intrapersonal. • It is’s crucial ingredient in discussions (racism, sexism, politics…) • The point is: • To learn from our differences • To understand each others’ understanding Martin, J.N. & Nakayama, T.K. (2010). Intercultural Communication in Contexts, 10 ed. New York: McGraw Hill. Ting-Toomey, S. & Chung, L.C. (2005). Understanding Intercultural Communication. New York: Oxford University Press. 5. Global and Intrapersonal Peace

  10. THE EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE UNALIKE CULTURALLY WHY STUDY I.C.S. ? TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS DEMOGRAPHIC REASONS TRAVEL & BUSSINESS TRANSACTIONS SELF AWARENESS CURIOSITY about cultures & EMPATHY towards its people ! INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION

  11. CLASS LEARNING: PRE-SESSION QUESTIONS 1. WHAT DOES THE TERM “CULTURE”USUALLY MEAN TO YOU? 2. HOW ARE WE INFLUENCED BY THE CULTURE IN WHICH WE HAVE GROWN UP?

  12. UNDERSTANDING CULTURE Culture can be viewed as an iceberg

  13. THE ICEBERG IS A GOOD ANALOGY TO USE TO ILLUSTRATE THE CONCEPT OF CULTURE IN WHICH THE PART ABOVE WATER THAT CAN BE SEEN ILLUSTRATES TANGIBLE EXPRESSIONS OF CULTURE LIKE BEHAVIOUR, CLOTHING AND FOOD WHILE THE PART BELOW THE SURFACE REPRESENTS THE UNDERLYING ATTITUDES, BELIEFS, VALUES, AND MEANINGS.

  14. A SET OF VALUES AND BELIEFS, NORMS AND CUSTOMS, AND RULES AND CODES THAT SOCIALLY DEFINES A GROUP OF PEOPLE, BINDS THEM TO ONE ANOTHER, AND GIVES A SENSE OF COMMONALITY (TRENHOLM & JENSON, 2000) A SYSTEM OF SHARED BELIEFS, VALUES, CUSTOMS/RITUALS, BEHAVIORS AND ARTIFACTS THAT THE MEMBERS OF A SOCIETY USE TO COPE WITH THEIR WORLD AND WITH ONE ANOTHER, AND THAT ARE TRANSMITTED FROM GENERATION TO GENERATION THROUGH LEARNING (HALL, 2002) DEFINING CULTURE

  15. THE TOTAL WAY OF LIFE OF PEOPLE, COMPOSED OF THEIR LEARNED AND SHARED BEHAVIOR PATTERNS, VALUES, BELIEFS, NORMS & MATERIAL OBJECTS. CULTURE

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING CULTURAL NORMS & VALUES

  17. CULTURE – THE WAYS OF THINKING, THE WAYS OF ACTING, AND THE MATERIAL OBJECTS THAT TOGETHER FORM A PEOPLE’S WAY OF LIFE. CULTURE CAN BE DIVIDED INTO… NONMATERIAL CULTURE – (IDEAS) MATERIAL CULTURE – (PHYSICAL THINGS) CULTURE IS SHARED…AND PEOPLE WHO INTERACT IN A DEFINED TERRITORY AND SHARE A CULTURE IS CONSIDERED A SOCIETY. EXPLAINING CULTURE

  18. CULTURE IS A SYSTEM THAT MEMBERS OF A GROUP SHARE AND USE TO COPE WITH ONE ANOTHER AND WITH THEIR WORLD. THIS SYSTEM CONSISTS OF: • VALUES • BELIEFS • NORMS • SYMBOLS • CUSTOMS • LANGUAGE SO WHAT IS CULTURE, EXACTLY?

  19. CULTURAL APPRECIATION VALUES BELIEFS NORMS ASPECTS OF CULTURE SYMBOLS CUSTOMS LANGUAGE

  20. VALUES : CULTURALLY DEFINED STANDARDS THAT PEOPLE USE TO DECIDE WHAT IS DESIRABLE, GOOD, AND BEAUTIFUL AND THAT SERVE AS BROAD GUIDELINES FOR SOCIAL LIVING BELIEFS: AN ORGANIZED PATTERN OF KNOWLEDGE ,SPECIFIC IDEAS ABOUT THE WORLD, THAT PEOPLE HOLD TO BE TRUE NORMS: RULES AND EXPECTATIONS BY WHICH A SOCIETY GUIDES THE BEHAVIOR OF ITS MEMBERS. THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF NORMS… PROSCRIPTIVE: WHAT SHOULD NOT BE DONE. e.g. Health officials’ warning about casual sex. PRESCRIPTIVE: WHAT SHOULD BE DONE. e.g.: Being respectful to elders. THE COMPONENTS OF CULTURE

  21. CULTURAL NORMS CAN INDICATE DEEP-SEATED SOCIAL PRINCIPALS. SO BE MINDFUL OF: • STANDARDS FOR PERSONAL SPACE • PERSONAL GREETINGS AND INTRODUCTIONS • LIVING STANDARDS AND SPENDING PRIORITIES • APPROACHES TO DESIGN AND STANDARDS OF BEAUTY • CONCEPTS OF RIGHT AND WRONG, AND GUILT AND SHAME ELEMENTS OF CULTURE: NORMS

  22. SO BE MINDFUL OF: • MEAL-TIME PATTERNS, AND DIETARY TABOOS AND RESTRICTIONS • FRIENDSHIP PATTERNS AND THE ROLE OF FAMILY AND OTHER RELATIONSHIPS • RESPECT FOR PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS SUCH AS DECISIVENESS AND HONOUR • THE ETIQUETTE OF GIFT GIVING AND CUSTOMS FOR ENTERTAINING BUSINESS ASSOCIATES • RELIGIOUS PRACTICES, PROHIBITIONS, HOLIDAYS, FORMS OF OBSERVANCE, AND SACRED OBJECTS, ANIMALS, PLACES AND PEOPLE CULTURAL NORMS CAN INDICATE DEEP-SEATED SOCIAL PRINCIPLES.

  23. MORES- NORMS THAT ARE WIDELY OBSERVED AND HAVE GREAT MORAL SIGNIFICANCE. ( ARRANGED MARRIAGES, EATING WITH LEFT HAND) MORES ARE TABOOS. OFTEN BREAKING NORMS LEAD TO BEING DRIVEN OUT FROM HOME / SOCIETY OR IMPRISONMENT (EX. RAPE, MURDER) FOLKWAYS- NORMS THAT ARE ROUTINE AND CASUAL INTERACTION. (EX. SHAKING HANDS, EATING STYLES, SAYING EXCUSE ME) . THE COMPONENTS OF CULTURE :NORMS

  24. LANGUAGE: – A SYSTEM OF SYMBOLS THAT ALLOWS PEOPLE TO COMMUNICATE. -THE WAYS IN WHICH PEOPLE CONVEY MEANING AND UNDERSTAND MESSAGES, INCLUDING SPOKEN AND WRITTEN WORDS,BODY GESTURES, BODY POSITION AND EYE CONTACT. -THROUGH LANGUAGE WE CAN TRANSMIT CULTURE. WISDOM OVER TIME IS PASSED DOWN THROUGH LANGUAGE. AESTHETICS: WHAT PEOPLE ACCEPT AS BEAUTIFUL OR PLEASING TO THE SENSES, INCLUDING MUSIC, ART, LITERATURE, DRESS, COLOURS AND ARCHITECTURE SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS: THE WAYS IN WHICH PEOPLE IN A PARTICULAR SOCIETY RELATE TO ONE ANOTHER, AS DETERMINED BY FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS, SOCIAL CLASS, EDUCATION,RELIGION AND AGE THE COMPONENTS OF CULTURE

  25. VALUES- A COLLECTIVE CONCEPTION OF THAT WHICH IS DESIRABLE. THIS CONCEPTION USUALLY HAS BOTH EMOTIONAL AND SYMBOLIC COMPONENTS. VALUES MAY RANGE FROM THOSE THAT ARE SUBJECTIVELY MEANINGFUL TO A GIVEN INDIVIDUAL TO THOSE THAT ARE SHARED CULTURAL NORMS. BELIEFS – SPECIFIC IDEAS THAT PEOPLE HOLD TO BE TRUE VALUES TEND TO BE GENERAL, AND BELIEFS TEND TO BE SPECIFIC. THEY ARE LINKED…YOUR ABSTRACT VALUES AFFECT THE SPECIFIC THINGS YOU BELIEVE ABOUT THE WORLD. VALUES AND BELIEFS OF THE U.S.A CULTURE

  26. EQUAL OPPORTUNITY- SOCIETY SHOULD PROVIDE EVERYONE WITH THE CHANCE TO GET AHEAD ACCORDING TO INDIVIDUAL TALENTS AND EFFORTS. ACHIEVEMENT AND SUCCESS- AMERICAN WAY OF LIFE ENCOURAGES COMPETITION TO THAT EACH PERSON’S REWARDS SHOULD REFLECT PERSONAL MERIT. MATERIAL COMFORT- SUCCESS IN THE U.S. GENERALLY MEANS MAKING MONEY AND ENJOYING WHAT IT WILL BUY. KEY VALUES OF THE U.S.A CULTURE

  27. PRACTICALITY AND EFFICIENCY- PEOPLE IN THE U.S. VALUE THE PRACTICALITY OVER THE THEORETICAL, OR “DOING” OVER “DREAMING.” PROGRESS- THE U.S. CULTURE CELEBRATES PROGRESS EQUATING THE “VERY LATEST” WITH THE “VERY BEST.” SCIENCE- THE U.S. HAS A CULTURAL TENDENCY TO DEVALUE EMOTION AND INTUITION AS SOURCES OF KNOWLEDGE.

  28. DEMOCRACY AND ENTERPRISE- AMERICANS BELIEVE THAT A JUST POLITICAL SYSTEM IS BASED ON FREE ELECTIONS IN WHICH ADULTS SELECT THEIR LEADERS AND ON.. AS ECONOMY THAT RESPONDS TO THE CHOICES OF INDIVIDUAL CONSUMERS. (DEMAND & SUPPLY) FREEDOM- CULTURAL VALUE OF FREEDOM MEANS THAT PEOPLE PLACE A HIGHER VALUE ON INDIVIDUAL INITIATIVE THAN ON COLLECTIVE CONFORMITY. RACISM AND GROUP SUPERIORITY- DESPITE STRONG NOTIONS ABOUT INDIVIDUALISM AND FREEDOM, MOST PEOPLE IN THE U.S. STILL EVALUATE INDIVIDUALS ACCORDING TO GENDER, RACE ETHNICITY, AND SOCIAL CLASS.

  29. ...BE AWARE THAT CULTURE IS NATURALLY DISTINCT (not clear) DIFFERENCES AND VARIATIONS EXIST ACROSS REGIONS, AND PEOPLE FROM ONE CULTURE OFTEN VIOLATE THE NORMS OF ANOTHER... WITHOUT KNOWING—OR EVEN HAVING BEEN INFORMED—THEY HAVE DONE SO. BUT…

  30. Japanese attitude for work: "If one can do it, I can do it.. If no one can do it, Imust do it.." Middle eastern attitude for work: "Wallahi if one can do it, let him do it.  If no one can do it, ya-habibi how can I do it..?" Kenan BAŞARAN JAPAN v.MIDDLE EAST 

  31. NORMS, SYMBOLS, LANGUAGE, VALUES AND BELIEFS ARE NON-MATERIAL ELEMENTS OF CULTURE TECHNOLOGY IS THE MATERIAL ELEMENTS OF CULTURE. TECHNOLOGY IS THE KNOWLEDGE THAT PEOPLE USE TO MAKE A WAY OF LIFE IN THEIR SURROUNDINGS TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE

  32. UNDERSTANDING CULTURE CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE A. CULTURE IS LEARNED B. CULTURE IS TRANSMITTED FROM GENERATION TO GENERATION C. CULTURE IS BASED ON SYMBOLS D. CULTURE IS DYNAMIC E. CULTURE IS AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM

  33. ·       CULTURE IS NOT SOMETHING THAT WE ARE BORN WITH, BUT RATHER IT IS LEARNED, IMPARTED TO US THROUGH OUR UPBRINGING AND EXPOSURE TO THE PRACTICES AND RULES OF CONDUCT OF THE CULTURE OF WHICH WE ARE A PART.

  34. Culture is learned How do we learn our culture?

  35. CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE a. CULTURE IS LEARNED 1) INTERACTION……. 2) OBSERVATION……………………………… 3) IMITATION……

  36. CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE b. CULTURE IS TRANSMITTED FROM GENERATION TO GENERATION 1. FORMS OF TRANSMISSION: PROVERBS, STORIES, ART, ETC. PROVERBS:ACTIONS SPEAK LOUDER THAN WORDS. STORIES: AESOP’S FABLES ART: A SYMBOLIC WAY OF COMMUNICATION 2. NUMEROUS CARRIERS: FAMILY, PEERS, MEDIA, MOSQUE,CHURCH, ETC. MASS MEDIA: BOOKS, MAGAZINES, NEWSPAPERS, RADIO, TELEVISION AND CINEMA, RECORDS, TAPES AND VIDEOS, INTERNET, ETC.

  37. SYMBOLS-ANYTHING THAT STANDS FOR OR REPRESENTS SOMETHING ELSE. SYMBOLS – ANYTHING THAT CARRIES A PARTICULAR MEANING RECOGNIZED BY PEOPLE WHO SHARE A CULTURE. THIS INCLUDES: SYMBOLIC WORDS, PHRASES, AND IMAGES ASSOCIATED WITH SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND IDEOLOGIES, WHICH CAN EVOKE POWERFUL IMAGES AND EMOTIONAL REACTIONS. CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE - SYMBOLS

  38. CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE C. CULTURE IS BASED ON SYMBOLS 1. SPOKEN WORDS 2. WRITTEN WORDS 3. NON-VERBAL ACTIONS SYMBOLS CAN BE LOGOS…

  39. Symbols can mean social causes

  40. Symbols can communicate instructions

  41. Symbols remind us of our history and values

  42. Artists use symbols…

  43. CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE d. CULTURE IS DYNAMIC CULTURES CHANGE AND EVOLVE OVER TIME. CHANGE IS SLOW AND OFTEN PAINFUL SHIFTS AWAY FROM “TRADITIONAL VALUES” TOWARDS “SECULAR VALUES”

  44. CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE CULTURE IS DYNAMIC CHANGES WITH SHIFT FROM “SURVIVAL VALUES” TO “SELF-EXPRESSION VALUES” DEEP STRUCTURE OF A CULTURE RESISTS MAJOR ALTERATIONS.

  45. Culture is Dynamic 1896 1918 1924 1935 1955 1964 1970 1986 1995 2007

  46. CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE e. CULTURE IS AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM CULTURE IS COMPOSED OF PARTS THAT ARE RELATED TO EACH OTHER. THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT (1955—1968) IT WAS A WORLDWIDE POLITICAL MOVEMENT FOR EQUALITY. IT WAS ACCOMPANIED BY MUCH CIVIL UNREST AND POPULAR REBELLION. THE MOVEMENT HAS BROUGHT ABOUT CHANGES IN MANY ASPECTS OF LIFE. March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

  47. Economics Kinship law Religion Medicine Culture is Integrated

  48. Culture is unconscious