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Intercultural Communication. Lecture 5 Topic and Face. Rhetorical Patterns. Inductive Topic delayed Because…so ( yinwei…suoyi ) Deductive Topic first So…because. ‘Inscrutable’ Asians?. And ‘Rude’ Americans? Young (1995) Crosstalk and Culture in Sino-American Communication.

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intercultural communication

Intercultural Communication

Lecture 5

Topic and Face

rhetorical patterns
Rhetorical Patterns
  • Inductive
    • Topic delayed
    • Because…so
    • (yinwei…suoyi)
  • Deductive
    • Topic first
    • So…because
inscrutable asians
‘Inscrutable’ Asians?
  • And ‘Rude’ Americans?
  • Young (1995) Crosstalk and Culture in Sino-American Communication
influenced by
Influenced by…
  • Adjacency, sequence, turn-taking and timing
    • Call-answer-topic
    • Call-answer-facework-topic
      • Exceptions (eg. Close friends/ service encounters)
      • ‘nei’ and ‘wai’ encounters
  • Face relationships
  • Differences in cultural structuring of situations and participant roles
confucianism and face relationships
Confucianism and face-relationships
  • Consciousness of power (‘rank’) differences
  • Person of higher position has right to introduce topic
situations
Situations
  • Deductive
    • When it is clear that speakers have the right to express their opinions in a free and unencumbered way
  • Inductive
    • When it is not clear the speakers have the right to express opinions in a free an unencumbered way (eg. When listeners are likely to resist these opinions)
face strategies
Face Strategies
  • Inductive
    • Independence
  • Deductive
    • involvement
topic and face systems
Topic and Face Systems
  • Deference
    • Inductive
  • Solidarity
    • Deductive
  • Heirarchial
    • Higher-deductive
    • Lower-inductive
  • Inferences
    • How do we interpret these rhetorical strategies?
culture and written discourse
Culture and Written Discourse
  • Kaplan (1966) linearity vs. circularity
    • Directness vs. indirectness and digression
  • Kirkpatrick (1991, 1993)
    • Main>Subordinate vs. Subordinate>Main
  • Ulijn and St Amant (2000)
    • High vs. Low Context > Directness
  • Chinese Honorifics (Formality, Hierarchy, Modesty)
slide12
Task
  • Look at the two examples of sales letters
  • Pay attention to the order of information and other strategies of rhetoric that are used
  • What differences can you see?
  • Can you relate any of these differences to the concepts we have been discussing?
zhu 2000
Zhu 2000
  • Chinese Sales Letters
  • Greeting
  • Introduction
  • ‘We’ approach
  • Indirect requests
  • English Sales Letters
  • Headline
  • P.S.
  • ‘You’ approach
  • Direct requests