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The Geography of Ancient Egypt

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  1. The Geography of Ancient Egypt Nile River Valley Region

  2. REGION OF ANCIENT EGYPT

  3. REGION OF ANCIENT EGYPT (NEW)

  4. 7-YEAR FAMINE IN EGYPT • Legend states this happened under reign of King Djoser (or Zoser) in the 2600s BCE • A period of drought fell over Egypt (“Low Nile”) • Sought out the help of Nile River god, Khnum, who eventually ended the drought with “High Nile” floods “I am Khnum. I know the Nile. When it covers the fields, it gives them life. Now the Nile will pour over the land without stopping. Plants will grow, bowing down with fruit. The years of starvation will be over.”

  5. FAMINE IN ANCIENT EGYPT

  6. FACTS ABOUT THE NILE • longest river system in world! (4100+ miles) • flows from SOUTH to NORTH -higher land to the south in mountainous Central Africa (gravity!) • drains into Mediterranean Sea -at Nile DELTA (marshland at MOUTH of river) • surrounded by deserts on both sides (natural barriers) -Libyan, Arabian, Nubian • winds blow from north to south -used sails if traveling SOUTHWARD -followed flow of currents if traveling NORTHWARD

  7. THE NILE RIVER SYSTEM

  8. NILE DELTA (SATELITTE)

  9. NILE DELTA

  10. LIBYAN DESERT OASIS

  11. NUBIAN DESERT (SUDAN)

  12. IMPORTANCE OF THE NILE • source of FRESH water -drinking, bathing, cleaning, fishing, irrigation, transportation • summer flooding irrigated the narrow fertile valley -left SILT behind (good soil, but clogs irrigation) • fertile plains in valley allowed for FARMING • attracted WILDLIFE (for fishing & hunting) -fish, ducks, geese, hippos, crocodiles, giraffes, ostriches • plentiful VEGETATION (PAPYRUS reeds) -used for making paper, rope, sandals, woven baskets, & huts -main crops = WHEAT (bread) & BARLEY (bread/beer)

  13. FARMING ALONG THE NILE

  14. SILT (GOOD & BAD)

  15. PAPYRUS PLANT REEDS

  16. PAPYRUS ON BANKS OF NILE

  17. PAPYRUS PAPER

  18. WILDLIFE ALONG THE NILE

  19. CLIMATE • mild winters (Nov. to April); • hot & dry summers (May to Oct.) • hot or warm days; cooler nights • very little rainfall (deserts to east & west) • rainfall in region of central Africa melted snow-capped mountains and rushed up the Nile river (predictable!) -FLOOD season (June to September) -PLANTING season (September to February) -HARVEST season (February to June)

  20. CATARACTS • 6 locations along the Nile River • steep rapids in a river • a very large waterfall • stone cliffs & boulders force river waters to rush through narrow channels • un-navigable (must get boat & goods out of river and walk past these cataracts)

  21. 1st Cataract: 1901 Aswan Dam

  22. 1st Cataract: Aswan Dam (modern)

  23. 1st Cataract: Satalitte Image (modern)

  24. 2nd Cataract: 1835 Image

  25. 2nd Cataract: 1885 Image

  26. 2nd Cataract: Lake Nasser (modern)

  27. 3rd Cataract: Modern Image

  28. 4th Cataract: Modern Image

  29. 5th Cataract: Modern Image

  30. 6th Cataract: ModernImage