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The Endocrine System. Communication throughout the body. What is the endocrine System? . It is one of the 2 regulatory systems in the human body It is made up of endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones

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the endocrine system

The Endocrine System

Communication throughout the body

what is the endocrine system
What is the endocrine System?
  • It is one of the 2 regulatory systems in the human body
  • It is made up of endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones
  • Hormones travel through the blood allowing communication through all parts of the body
jobs of the endocrine system
Jobs of the Endocrine System
  • Regulation of metabolism and tissue maturation
  • Regulation of ion concentrations in the blood
  • Maintaining water balance
  • Helps control production of immune cells
  • Helps control heart rate and blood pressure
still more
. . . Still more!
  • Controls blood glucose and other nutrients
  • Controls reproductive functions
  • Regulates uterine contractions and milk production
what is an endocrine gland
What is an endocrine gland?
  • They are ductless organs that secrete their hormones directly into the blood
  • Hormones cause a response in other cells, called target cells, but only if the other cells have receptors.
are there different types of hormones
Are there different types of hormones?
  • Yes!
  • There are two major categories:
  • Steroid hormones (lipid soluble)
  • Protein or peptide hormones (water soluble)
steroid hormones
Steroid Hormones
  • Can pass through the cell membrane
  • Have receptor molecules inside the cell
  • Usually take a longer period of time to act
  • Can be reproductive hormones
  • Can be taken orally because they will pass through the stomach walls
protein hormones
Protein Hormones
  • Cannot cross the cell membranes
  • Need receptor molecules on the outside of target cells
  • Usually act very quickly
  • Cannot be taken orally because they cannot pass through the stomach wall and will be digested
  • A small amount can have a very big affect due to signal amplification
how do steroid hormones work
How do Steroid Hormones Work?
  • 1. They pass through the cell membrane
  • 2. They bind a receptor in the cytoplasm of a target cell
  • 3. The receptor/Hormone complex enters the nucleus
  • 4. Gene expression is started and new gene products are formed
how do protein hormones work
How do Protein hormones work?
  • 1. The water-soluble hormone binds a receptor on the outside of the cell membrane
  • 2. A G protein activates an enzyme (adenylatecyclase)
  • 3. This causes a series of intracellular changes that can amplify the original signal
  • 4. Intracellular changes result in a change in productivity, enzyme activation, gene expression, cell shape, or cell motion
how are hormones controlled
How are Hormones controlled?
  • The Pituitary gland is the “master gland” that controls the endocrine system
  • The pituitary gland is controlled by its close neighbor, the hypothalamus (part of the nervous system)
two types of feedback
Two types of feedback:



Used to break homeostasis

Levels of hormones cause more hormone to be produced.

Ex: Oxytocin in child birth causes stronger and stronger contractions

  • Used to maintain values in a normal range
  • Maintains homeostasis
  • Ex: Insulin and glucagon keep blood glucose levels constant