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Discrimination & Complex Stimulus Control. Chs12 & 13. Reinforcement-Based Discrimination. S D. After. Behavior. Before. S D. After. Discriminative Stimulus (S D ). A stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished. S-delta (S D ).

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Reinforcement-Based Discrimination

SD

After

Behavior

Before

SD

After


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Discriminative Stimulus (SD)

  • A stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished


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S-delta (SD)

  • A stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will not be reinforced or punished


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Reinforcement-Based Discrimination

SD

Brelandlesss target

After

Chicken has food

Behavior

Chicken pulls the trigger

Before

Chicken has no food

After

Chicken has no food

SD

Breland


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Discrimination Training Procedure

  • Reinforcing or punishing a response in the presence of one stimulus and extinguishing it or allowing it to recover in the presence of another stimulus.


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Stimulus discrimination(stimulus control)

  • The occurrence of a response more frequently in the presence of one stimulus than in the presence of another, usually as a result of a discrimination training procedure



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Concept training

  • Intuition?

    • Control by a concept or set of contingencies the person or organism does not define or describe

  • Concept of PERSON is complex


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Herrnstein & Loveland

  • Concept training procedure with nonverbal animal


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Concept Training

SD

Various pictures of people

After

Pigeon has grain

Behavior

Pigeon pecks key

Before

No grain

Sdelta

Various pictures with no people

After

Pigeon has no grain


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Concept Training

SD

Various Picasso paintings

After

Pigeon has grain

Behavior

Pigeon pecks key

Before

No grain

Sdelta

Various painting by others

After

Pigeon has no grain


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Complex Stimulus Control

  • Conceptual stimulus control


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Stimulus class (concept)

  • A set of stimuli all of which have some common physical property

  • A stimulus class is the same thing as a concept


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Stimulus generalization

  • The behavioral contingencies in the presence of one stimulus affects the frequency of the response in the presence of another stimulus

  • E.g. – reinforcement for pecking in presence of 1 Picasso painting affects likelihood of pecking in presence of another Picasso painting (more likely)


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Concept Training

  • Reinforcing or punishing a response in the the presence of one stimulus class and extinguishing it or allowing it to recover in the presence of another stimulus class


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Concept trainingVs.

Conceptual stimulus control


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Conceptual stimulus control

  • Responding occurs more often in the presence of one stimulus class and less often in the presence of another stimulus class because of concept training


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Testing for stimulus generalization

  • Test for stimulus generalization using novel stimuli

  • If respond correctly to novel stimuli, can say the behavior is under the stimulus control of concepts.


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Stimulus generalization vs. stimulus discrimination

  • Responds in presence of SD but not in the presence of SD. This is ______________

  • Responds at similar rates in presence of SD and SD. This is __________________





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Generalization vs. Discrimination

  • Amount of generalization is the opposite of the amount of stimulus discrimination (stimulus control)


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Fading, Errorless Learning, Imitation

Chapter 13 & 14, Part 2


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Fading

  • Stimulus dimensions

    • The physical properties of stimuli


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Stimulus Dimensions

  • Stimuli differ from each other

    • House vs. car

  • Obvious dimensions

    • Size, weight, shape, material, etc.

vs.


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Stimulus Dimensions

  • The more dimensions along which objects differ, the easier to establish a discriminative stimulus control

  • The fewer dimensions along which objects differ, the harder it is to establish discriminative stimulus control


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Example

  • Good golf balls (SD) vs. bad golf balls (SD)

  • This is a discrimination that is difficult

  • How can the discrimination be established?

  • The 2 golf balls are similar in so many dimensions….and differ in only a few

    • Roundness, resiliency, hardness of cover


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Make stimulus dimensions more salient, then use fading

  • Color the bad golf ball green

  • Leave the good golf ball alone

  • Reinforce picking out good golf balls

  • Don’t reinforcer picking bad (green) golf balls


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Fading

  • Gradually fade out the difference between good balls and bad balls by reducing the “green”


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Fading procedure

  • At first, the SD and the SDdiffer along at least two stimulus dimensions (green & white, new & old).

  • The difference between the SD and the SDalong all but one dimension is reduced until there is no difference along the reduced dimensions.

  • The the SD and the SDdiffer along only one dimension


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Errorless Discrimination Procedure

  • The use of a fading procedure to establish a discrimination, with no errors during training.

Jimmy


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Jimmy

Susan


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Jimmy

Susan


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Jimmy

Susan


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Jimmy

Susan


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Jimmy

Susan


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Jimmy

Susan


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Reinforcement-Based Discrimination

SD

Jimmy on a white  black card

After

Jimmy has a raisin

Behavior

Jimmy picks card

Before

Jimmy has no raisin

After

Jimmy has no raisin

SD

Susan on a black card


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Stimulus Dimensions

  • Lettering

  • Shading

  • At first, choice of cards was under the control of the dimension of ________

  • Then, after fading, responding was under the control of the dimension of _______



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Reinforcer Reduction

  • Move from primary to secondary reinforcers

  • Change from 3 pellets to 1 pellet


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Imitation

  • The form of the behavior of the imitator is controlled by similar behavior of the model


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Imitation Training: Stimulus Discrimination

SD

Raised arm and “do this”

After

Marilla has food & praise

Behavior

Marilla raises arm

Before

Marilla has no food & praise

After

Marilla has no food & praise

SD

No arm raised or no “do this”


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Imitation Training: Differential Reinforcement

After

Marilla has food & praise

Behavior

Marilla raises arm

Before

Marilla has no food & praise

After

Marilla has no food & praise

Behavior

Marilla raises arm


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Training Imitation

  • Train imitation with a partner

    • Touch nose

    • Touch toes

    • Raise hand

    • Etc……


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Generalized Imitation

  • Imitation of the response of a model without previous reinforcement of imitation of that specific response.


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