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Stimulus Control The development of a stimulus as a signal for the occurrence of a specified response The signal indicates the availability of positive reinforcement for that response The reinforcement is available only in the presence of the stimulus and only when that response is made

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stimulus control
Stimulus Control
  • The development of a stimulus as a signal for the occurrence of a specified response
  • The signal indicates the availability of positive reinforcement for that response
  • The reinforcement is available only in the presence of the stimulus and only when that response is made
generalization
Generalization
  • A naïve organism, when encountering a stimulus, will not know what that stimulus signifies
  • The organism might respond randomly and inconsistently to that stimulus
  • The stimulus does not exert control over the behavior
  • Many different responses might occur in the presence of a stimulus
discrimination
Discrimination
  • The act of differential responding to stimuli
  • A response occurs only in the presence of a particular stimulus
  • Certain responses will be reinforced in the presence of the stimulus
  • The response will only be reinforced in the presence of that stimulus
  • Other responses will not be reinforced in the presence of the stimulus
discriminative stimuli
Discriminative Stimuli
  • Those stimuli which signal the availability of reinforcement for specified responses are known as discriminative stimuli
  • Other responses that might occur in the presence of the stimulus will not be reinforced
  • Ultimately, only those responses that are reinforced in the presence of a discriminative stimulus will occur when that stimulus is presented
stimulus control in the classroom
Stimulus Control in the Classroom
  • The manner in which desks are arranged in the classroom will make a difference in the kinds of activities that are fostered in that environment
van dyke houses
Van Dyke Houses
  • Buildings are isolated from each other as are individual apartments
  • Sense of isolation develops in tenants, lack of community spirit
  • Apathy toward living environment
  • Increase in crime
brownsville houses
Brownsville Houses
  • Have an exposed stairway
  • Apartment units grouped, share common vestibule, staircase
brownsville houses8
Brownsville Houses
  • Exterior areas are under possible observation from apartments
  • Provides security and increasing resident use and responsibility
problems of distraction
Problems of Distraction
  • Many people put in the time studying but much of that time is spent in distraction
procrastination is often a problem of stimulus control
Procrastination is often a problem of stimulus control
  • The desk serves as a discriminative stimulus for anything but studying
a typical dieter s daily food intake
Breakfast 1/2 Grapefruit 1 slice whole wheat toast 8 oz. Skim milk

Lunch 4 oz. lean broiled chicken breast 1 cup steamed zucchini

1 Oreo cookie

Mid Afternoon snack Rest of the Oreos package 1qt. Rocky Road ice cream 1 jar hot fudge

Dinner

2 loaves of garlic bread 1 large pepperoni pizza 1large pitcher of beer 3 Milky Way candy bars 1 frozen cheesecake

A Typical Dieter’s Daily Food Intake
overeating or inactivity
Overeating or Inactivity?
  • Many problems of weight control involve low levels of activity as much as they do overeating
overeating problems
Overeating Problems
  • The presence of food cues
  • The immediate reinforcement it provides

* The positive reinforcement of good taste

* The negative reinforcement of making us feel better when we are sad, anxious, etc.

  • The long delay of negative effects
  • It can be done anywhere
leading a more active lifestyle
Leading a More Active Lifestyle
  • Exercise does not have to be structured and in a special place (gym), but can be incorporated into everyday life
  • Using stairs instead of elevators, walking instead of driving short distances, etc. are all calorie burners
developing healthy eating habits i
Developing Healthy Eating Habits I
  • Do not go on a diet but change the way you eat on a permanent basis
  • Stimulus narrowing: eat only in specified places and nowhere else
  • Eat small meals often rather than 2 or 3 big ones
  • Eat only when you are hungry: stop and think before you eat
  • Proceed slowly, expecting to lose no more than 6 to 8 pounds per month
  • Keep a journal of everything eaten, including what, how much, when, where, and how you felt
developing healthy eating habits ii grocery shopping
Developing Healthy Eating Habits II: Grocery Shopping
  • Make a list of needed items before you go
  • Do not take checks, ATM, or credit cards
  • Take just the amount of cash you feel will be needed to pay for the items on the list
  • Do not grocery shop when you are hungry
  • Avoid aisles with snack and junk food that you do not need
developing healthy eating habits iii what to do with food at home
Developing Healthy Eating Habits III: What to Do With Food at Home
  • Once food is in the house, put it away, preferably out of sight
  • The more difficult it is to get to or prepare, the less likely it will be eaten
  • Keep a journal of everything eaten, including what, how much, when, where, and how you felt
  • Eat only in one place and not while engaged in any other activity
  • When anything is eaten, put out a full place setting and then clean it up
developing healthy eating habits iv preparing and eating meals
Developing Healthy Eating Habits IV: Preparing and Eating Meals
  • Prepare only as much food as will be necessary for the meal
  • Do not overly sample while preparing
  • Serve portions onto plates; do not place bowls or pans of food on the table
  • Any leftover food should be put away or discarded before sitting down to eat
  • Eat slowly
preparing and eating meals cont d
Preparing and Eating Meals, cont’d
  • Stimulus narrowing: eat only in specified places and nowhere else
  • Eat small meals often rather than 2 or 3 big ones
  • Eat only when you are hungry; stop and think before you eat: “Do I really need this food?”
  • Stop eating when you are full
  • Do not totally deprive yourself of any favorite food but allow small amounts of it once in a while
developing healthy eating habits v at other times
Developing Healthy Eating Habits V: At Other Times
  • Be as active as possible; set up regular exercise
  • Have a support group, perhaps friends with similar problems, you can talk to during times of temptation
  • Get your family and close friends to support your efforts
  • Do not weigh often, only about once a week, as weight loss will be slow and uneven
  • Expect occasional setbacks; don’t be discouraged; just get back on track as soon as possible
prompting

Prompting

Presenting a discriminative stimulus for a response that is used to induce a desirable response or to discourage an undesirable response

varieties of prompts
Varieties of Prompts
  • Verbal Prompts: spoken or written words intended to induce a desired behavior (instructions, advice, or commands
  • Gestural prompts: physical movements previously established as discriminative stimuli for specific behaviors
  • Picture or symbolic prompts: a stimulus that illustrates a behavior
  • Physical prompts: induces correct responding by manually guiding the person’s movements
advantages and disadvantages of prompting
Advantages and Disadvantages of Prompting
  • Advantage: Desired behaviors can be quickly induced with relatively little effort
  • Disadvantage: The prompts can become a crutch and must then be eliminated