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Happy Wednesday!. Please take out your notebook and title a new page, “1950s Cold War”. Intro Video. Found at: http://youtu.be/wvWkABCFMaw Show only through 1:37.

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happy wednesday
Happy Wednesday!
  • Please take out your notebook and title a new page, “1950s Cold War”
intro video
Intro Video
  • Found at:
  • http://youtu.be/wvWkABCFMaw
  • Show only through 1:37
warm up
What do you think about how parents or teachers try to block what they believe are negative influences on you; music, movies, television, etc…?

How does this compare to similar actions the U.S. took to try to block, or contain, harmful Soviet influence in Europe?

Warm-up
former allies clash
British, US, France are challenged by Russia

Roosevelt hopes that Stalin will be ally in the post war years

But tensions begin at Yalta

-Germany

-Reparations

- Soviet support against Japan

- Polish elections

- United Nations

Problems occur mainly over vast ideological differences

Former Allies Clash
division of germany berlin
Originally Germany was divided into four sectors.

Eventually the western allies combined their three zones into one country. But Berlin was also divided into four zones.

The western part of Berlin was surrounded by Soviet-occupied territory.

There was no written agreement with the Soviet to allow the Allies to have access to the western part of Berlin. Later, the Soviets will take advantage of this.

Division of Germany/Berlin

East Germany

West Germany

potsdam
Soviets want to collect war reparations from all of Germany.

Truman objects and it is decided that each nation will collect war reparations from the zones they occupy in Germany.

Soviets are angered by this and want loans from US to compensate

Potsdam
democracy
Definition: a form of government by the people in which citizens choose who will govern them through voting.

American Perspective: best form of government to promote the value of “consent of the governed”

Soviet Perspective: says the United States was hypocritical to promote both democracy and capitalism – true democracy can only be secured in an economic system that rewards everyone equally.

Democracy
totalitarianism
Definition: a government in which one or a few people have total control. Freedom of speech, press and religion are denied.

American Perspective: Evil system that threatens basic human rights.

Soviet Perspective: required to transform a society from an unequal one to one in which wealth is evenly distributed.

Totalitarianism
capitalism
Definition: an economic system that stresses the private ownership of industry, freedom of competition, a laissez-faire governmental approach and acceptance of economic classes.

American Perspective: the competitive nature of capitalism provides individuals the opportunity to better themselves and the incentive to produce better products and services.

Soviet Perspective: Evil system – competition breeds selfishness and undermines cooperation and community – poverty and oppression are the result of capitalism.

Capitalism
equality
American Perspective: defined in two ways; equality of opportunity and equality before the law. Providing basic necessities like health care and employment undermines a citizen’s work ethic.

Soviet Perspective: Equality of condition (everyone shares in the material wealth of the society) is essential for a healthy society.

Equality
freedom
American Perspective: at the core of a happy and productive society. Americans hold freedom in the highest regard.

Soviet Perspective: People are not free unless they have a fair share of wealth that allows them to live beyond their basic needs.

Freedom
cold war tensions
Cold War Tensions
  • Each group receives a card.
  • Every person in the group: take notes on the topic. Define and answer the questions on the back.
  • Begins on page 811!
  • Get a piece of butcher paper and draw a set of three pictures to tell the story.
happy thursday
Happy Thursday!
  • Please turn to the notes you took yesterday on your assigned topic.
  • You will be teaching this information to your classmates. Be sure your notes are complete and thorough.
  • EVERYONE will be the teacher at some point in the activity.
cold war tensions1
Cold War Tensions
  • Create a circle around the room.
  • Choose one person in the group to teach your subject.
  • Everyone else, rotate clockwise.
  • Each person gets 2 minutes to teach the group.
  • Then, someone who just learned, teach the next group, and the teacher now rotates with another group.
  • TAKE GOOD NOTES! YOU TEACH OTHERS!
policy of containment
Initiated by George F. Kennan

Policy based on belief that nations are in danger of falling to communism must be assisted by whatever means necessary to stop the spread of communism.

Winston Churchill

“iron curtain” – came to stand for the division of Europe – of those nations under Soviet influence.

LATER: Under Eisenhower

Domino Theory: America feared that if communism spread to one area in SoutheastAsia, it would spread to another surrounding area. The only way to stop it was to keep the “dominos” (countries) from becoming communist.

Policy of Containment
truman doctrine
“…it must be a policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” – Truman

$400 million in economic and military aid was sent to Turkey and Greece – greatly reduced the danger of communist takeover in nations around the world.

Truman Doctrine
marshall plan
The United States government offered $13 billion + to European nations to help them rebuild.

Designed to keep them from being influenced by the communists and establish democracy.

Marshall Plan
satellite nations
Countries that were dominated by the Soviet Union.

Ex. Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Poland.

Satellite Nations
warm up1
Warm-up
  • In your own words, what is containment?
  • What actions do the U.S. take in this policy?
berlin airlift
Stalin hoped to take over the western part of Berlin. He blocked all highway and rail routes into Berlin thus cutting off any way for West Berlin to receive food and supplies.

American and British officials tried to break the blockade by airlifting supplies into West Berlin.

277,000 flights went in over 327 days – brought 2.3 million tons of supplies

May 1949 – the Soviets, realizing they were defeated, lifted the blockade

Berlin Airlift
slide25
North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Created in 1949 to discourage the spread of communist aggression in Europe.

Agreement – if one nation is attacked (by the Soviet Union), all other NATO members would see it as an attack on themselves and come to their defense.

First peacetime alliance in American history.

NATO
warsaw pact
Created in 1955 to counter the NATO “threat” to communist countries.

It was a defensive alliance among communist countries. (It was the NATO of the communist block)

Warsaw Pact
eisenhower doctrine
1957

Aid provided to Middle Eastern countries – to defend them from any possible communist attacks

Eisenhower Doctrine
warm up2
Warm-up
  • Why do you think it is called the Cold War?
china falls to communism
Civil War in China before WWII – resumed after the war ended.

Nationalists- Chiang Kai-Shek (U.S. supported)

Communist – Mao Zedong

China fell to communism in 1949

The Communists wanted to extend their reach into Asia and planned to go after South Korea.

How do you think the U.S. will react?

China Falls to Communism
what is a proxy war
A war where two powers use third parties as a supplement or a substitute for fighting each other directly.

The U.S. fought the spread of communism in a number of ways; financial aid to countries, diplomacy, and proxy wars.

The Korean War is an example of a proxy war.

What is a Proxy War?
cold war in korea
Japan had annexed Korea and ruled it until 1945 when the war ended.

Japan surrendered to the Soviets – north of the 38th parallel

Japan surrendered to the Americans – south of the 38th parallel

Cold War in Korea
korean war
The first (of what would be many) proxy wars between the U.S. and Soviets.

North Korea invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950.

President Truman ordered troops stationed in Japan to support the South Koreans

Even though 16 nations sent forces to help the South Koreans, 90% of the troops were American.

General MacArthur was placed in command of the American troops.

Korean War
beginning of the war
In the beginning, the North Koreans seemed unstoppable – they had pushed UN and South Korean troops into a small defensive zone around Pusan.Beginning of the War
macarthur s counterattack
MacArthur launched a counter-attack with tanks, heavy artillery, and fresh troops.

Surprise amphibious landing behind enemy lines at Inchon.

The North Korean troops were trapped between two attacking forces – half the Northern Korean troops surrendered; the rest fled back across the 38th parallel into North Korea.

It seemed as though North Korea was about to lose the war…***

MacArthur’s Counterattack
chinese advance
The Chinese stated that they would not sit by idly and “let the Americans come to the border”.

November 1950 – 300,000 Chinese troops joined the war on the side of the North Koreans.

Chinese troops outnumbered UN troops 10 to 1. They advanced to the south, capturing Seoul.

After this surge – there was a two-year long standoff.

Chinese Advance
macarthur recommends attacking china
Convinced Korea was the place “where the Communist conspirators have elected to make their play for global conquest.”

Nuke ‘em: He wanted to use nuclear weapons against the Chinese.

MacArthur Recommends Attacking China
macarthur vs truman
Truman rejected MacArthur’s request to attack China.

Attacking China would mean attacking the Soviet Union – they had a defensive alliance. This would set off World War III.

MacArthur tried to go over the President’s head – he spoke and wrote privately to newspaper and magazine publishers and Republican leaders.

MacArthur was warned but he continued to criticize the president.

Truman eventually fires MacArthur.

MacArthur vs. Truman
macarthur s farewell
Many Americans were outraged by their hero’s downfall.

69% of Americans backed General MacArthur.

He addressed Congress, an honor usually awarded only to heads of government.

New York city honored him with a ticker-tape parade.

“Old soldiers never die, they just fade away.”

MacArthur’s Farewell
settling for a stalemate
Eventually a cease-fire was called and the border was set at the 38th parallel, exactly where it was before the war began.

Cost for America:

54,000 American lives

$67 billion

Settling for a Stalemate
spy cases stun america
Spy Cases Stun America
  • Alger Hiss – 1948 ( sent to jail perjury- too many years passed to convict of espionage - Nixon)
  • Among several others was the case involving Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.
  • Were accused of working with physicist Klaus Fuchs and giving our atomic bomb secrets to the Soviets which enabled them to build a nuclear bomb in a shorter period of time.
  • They were activists in the Communist Party – they denied the charges against them and plead the fifth.
  • Found guilty of espionage and sentenced to death.
  • Judge declared their crime as being “worse than murder”.
senator mccarthy
Little-known Republican senator from Wisconsin.

Looked for a way to promote his political career and he found it in anti-communism hysteria.

Feb. 1950 he attracted national attention in a speech in which he revealed 205 names that were known as being members of the Communist Party and who were still working and shaping policy in the State Department.

Senator McCarthy
mccarthyism1
McCarthy was re-elected and for the next four years he worked to root out the “communist evil” he said existed in government, the entertainment industry and education.

He was a member of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) where he browbeat, bullied and berated a nearly endless stream of suspected Communists called to testify.

McCarthyism
slide48
HUAC members considered it their duty to purge the country of any Communist influences.

Because of Hollywood’s high profile, it became the best known target of this infamous committee.

HUAC
the hollywood ten
Nine screenwriters and one director who refused to answer any questions in front of the committee, claiming their 5th amendment rights against self-incrimination.

The courts at the time interpreted the 5th amendment did not apply to legislative proceedings like this – only to judicial ones.

They all served prison terms of between 6 months and 1 year.

The Hollywood Ten
the hollywood ten1
They had three choices:

(1) they could claim they had never been members of the Communist Party. Since all had been, this would have been perjury;

(2) they could admit to being former or current Communists and “Name names”, but then lose their jobs; or

(3) they could remain silent. This is what they did, and they all lost their jobs.

This was not the end – there was a second wave of testimonies and many more in Hollywood were blacklisted from the industry.

The Hollywood Ten
i love lucy
Others were soon caught up in the atmosphere of fear and suspicion.  Among the better known was comedic genius Lucille Ball whose experience was atypical in that she recovered her career and popularity. 

Ball's grandfather had been an old railroad man who idolized Eugene Debs and convinced young Lucy to register to vote in California as a Communist. 

Years later when her "crime" was discovered, the blacklisters banned Lucy from the studios, thus ending a promising movie career. 

She fought back by forming her own production company and making the well-known television series "I Love Lucy."

I Love Lucy?
anti communist hysteria
Pushed American politics to the far-right of the political spectrum.

Any proposal for expanded government was perceived as a move toward communism.

Lawmakers at all levels passed laws to curb the communist threat:

Texas law made membership in the Communist Party a felony punishable by twenty years in prison.

New York City – citizens had to pledge their loyalty to the U.S. to obtain a fishing license.

Anti-Communist Hysteria
the end of mccarthyism
Despite all of the hysteria, McCarthy never proved his conspiracy charges.

His allegations repeatedly turned out to be empty, his political power decreased and his supporters abandoned him.

Last straw – he attacked an Army General on television – as a result the Senate passed a vote of censure in 1954.

Ironically, communism was never popular in the U.S. – in 1950 there were only 45,000 members.

The End of McCarthyism
watch duck and cover

Watch Duck and Cover

http://youtu.be/IKqXu-5jw60

warm up3
Warm-up

What is the message that is being portrayed by this political cartoon? Make sure you analyze:

-The setting

-The people

-The bull 

eisenhower s presidency
Elected president in 1952

Republican – elected after the outcome of the Korean War (under the Democratic leadership of Truman)

Eisenhower’s Presidency
tidbits on eisenhower
He switched his first and middle names around to avoid confusion between he and his father. (Dwight,David)

He had a putting green installed on the White House lawn.

Eisenhower was the first president of all fifty states.

He was the first president to appear on color television.

He was superstitious. He carried three coins with him for good luck; a silver dollar, a five-guinea gold piece, and French franc.

Tidbits on Eisenhower
  • Eisenhower was the first president licensed to pilot a plane.
  • He was the only president to serve in both world wars.
  • He was responsible for putting “under God” into the Pledge of Allegiance.
brinkmanship
John Foster Dulles, Secretary of State

Staunch Anti-communist

Goal to prevent spread of communism by promising to use all of its force, including NUKES against aggressors.

A willingness to go to the edge or BRINK of all out war.

US Army/Navy trimmed, but expanded air force and build up of Nuclear weapons

Soviets followed suit

Fear of nuclear war became a constant in American life for thirty years.

Brinkmanship
cold war spreads around world
Cold War Spreads Around World
  • CIA –Central Intelligence Agency
  • Middle East/Latin America
  • 1951- Iranian nationalization of Oil under Mossadegh leads to British protest,
  • 1953- CIA gave millions to anti-Mossadegh forces, and help overthrow him for the Shah of Iran
  • 1954- CIA in covert actions helped overthrow Guatemalan president.
problems for ike
Problems For Ike
  • Warsaw Pact – 1953
  • Summit in Geneva- 1955 – Ike puts forward “Open Skies” proposal -flight over territories allowed-Soviets Reject it …but a warming trend begins
  • Suez War- Egyptian dam construction plays US against Soviets. Egyptians nationalize canal after 1956 when US withdraw loans and causes war between Egypt and GR/FR/IS. UN negotiates , end but Egypt keeps canal.
  • Eisenhower Doctrine – 1957 –Middle East
  • Hungarian Uprising – 1956 Soviet Tanks put down rebellion- 200,000 Hungarians flee to west. Frustrated U.S. did not intervene. Truman Doctrine did not extend to Soviet Satellites.
domino theory
Domino Theory
  • 1954 – Geneva Accords –France gives up control of Vietnam
  • Fear that if one nation

fell to communism in

Southeast Asia others

would fall as well

  • SEATO – the NATO of

Southeast Asia

u 2 incident
The CIA made secret high-altitude flights over Soviet territory (recording troop movement and missile sites).

Eisenhower wanted to suspend the flights as he was preparing to engage in diplomatic talks with Khrushchev (Soviet leader).

One last flight was authorized in 1960 and that pilot (Francis Gary Powers) was shot down and captured by the Soviets – sentenced to ten years in prison.

At first Ike denied U2 spy flights Khrushchev had evidence, so demanded an apology and a cease of the flights. Eisenhower discontinued the flights but refused to apologize.

Khrushchev called off 1960 Summit and withdrew invitation for Ike to visit Soviet Union

Led to greater tensions between the two power in the 1960s.

U-2 Incident
the space race begins
Russians launch Sputnik – the world’s first artificial satellite.

Shocked and frightened the U.S.

America began to place an emphasis on math and science in education.

The Space Race Begins
follow up
Follow-up

Identify the significance of the statement below stated in reaction to the U.S. fear of Soviet power after the success of Sputnik…

“Those now in college will before long be living in the age of ICBM’s.

What will be then needed is not more engineers and scientists, but a people who will not panic…

and political leaders of wisdom, courage, and devotion, with capacity for solving intricate human problems

…not more Einsteins…. but more Washingtons

and Madisons.”