Happy Wednesday!. Please take out your notebook and title a new page, “1950s Cold War”. Intro Video. Found at: http://youtu.be/wvWkABCFMaw Show only through 1:37.
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How does this compare to similar actions the U.S. took to try to block, or contain, harmful Soviet influence in Europe?Warm-up
Eventually the western allies combined their three zones into one country. But Berlin was also divided into four zones.
The western part of Berlin was surrounded by Soviet-occupied territory.
There was no written agreement with the Soviet to allow the Allies to have access to the western part of Berlin. Later, the Soviets will take advantage of this.Division of Germany/Berlin
Truman objects and it is decided that each nation will collect war reparations from the zones they occupy in Germany.
Soviets are angered by this and want loans from US to compensatePotsdam
American Perspective: best form of government to promote the value of “consent of the governed”
Soviet Perspective: says the United States was hypocritical to promote both democracy and capitalism – true democracy can only be secured in an economic system that rewards everyone equally.Democracy
American Perspective: Evil system that threatens basic human rights.
Soviet Perspective: required to transform a society from an unequal one to one in which wealth is evenly distributed.Totalitarianism
American Perspective: the competitive nature of capitalism provides individuals the opportunity to better themselves and the incentive to produce better products and services.
Soviet Perspective: Evil system – competition breeds selfishness and undermines cooperation and community – poverty and oppression are the result of capitalism.Capitalism
Soviet Perspective: Equality of condition (everyone shares in the material wealth of the society) is essential for a healthy society.Equality
Soviet Perspective: People are not free unless they have a fair share of wealth that allows them to live beyond their basic needs.Freedom
Policy based on belief that nations are in danger of falling to communism must be assisted by whatever means necessary to stop the spread of communism.
“iron curtain” – came to stand for the division of Europe – of those nations under Soviet influence.
LATER: Under Eisenhower
Domino Theory: America feared that if communism spread to one area in SoutheastAsia, it would spread to another surrounding area. The only way to stop it was to keep the “dominos” (countries) from becoming communist.Policy of Containment
$400 million in economic and military aid was sent to Turkey and Greece – greatly reduced the danger of communist takeover in nations around the world.Truman Doctrine
Designed to keep them from being influenced by the communists and establish democracy.Marshall Plan
Ex. Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Poland.Satellite Nations
American and British officials tried to break the blockade by airlifting supplies into West Berlin.
277,000 flights went in over 327 days – brought 2.3 million tons of supplies
May 1949 – the Soviets, realizing they were defeated, lifted the blockadeBerlin Airlift
Created in 1949 to discourage the spread of communist aggression in Europe.
Agreement – if one nation is attacked (by the Soviet Union), all other NATO members would see it as an attack on themselves and come to their defense.
First peacetime alliance in American history.NATO
Nationalists- Chiang Kai-Shek (U.S. supported)
Communist – Mao Zedong
China fell to communism in 1949
The Communists wanted to extend their reach into Asia and planned to go after South Korea.
How do you think the U.S. will react?China Falls to Communism
The U.S. fought the spread of communism in a number of ways; financial aid to countries, diplomacy, and proxy wars.
The Korean War is an example of a proxy war.What is a Proxy War?
Japan surrendered to the Soviets – north of the 38th parallel
Japan surrendered to the Americans – south of the 38th parallelCold War in Korea
North Korea invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950.
President Truman ordered troops stationed in Japan to support the South Koreans
Even though 16 nations sent forces to help the South Koreans, 90% of the troops were American.
General MacArthur was placed in command of the American troops.Korean War
Surprise amphibious landing behind enemy lines at Inchon.
The North Korean troops were trapped between two attacking forces – half the Northern Korean troops surrendered; the rest fled back across the 38th parallel into North Korea.
It seemed as though North Korea was about to lose the war…***MacArthur’s Counterattack
November 1950 – 300,000 Chinese troops joined the war on the side of the North Koreans.
Chinese troops outnumbered UN troops 10 to 1. They advanced to the south, capturing Seoul.
After this surge – there was a two-year long standoff.Chinese Advance
Nuke ‘em: He wanted to use nuclear weapons against the Chinese.MacArthur Recommends Attacking China
Attacking China would mean attacking the Soviet Union – they had a defensive alliance. This would set off World War III.
MacArthur tried to go over the President’s head – he spoke and wrote privately to newspaper and magazine publishers and Republican leaders.
MacArthur was warned but he continued to criticize the president.
Truman eventually fires MacArthur.MacArthur vs. Truman
69% of Americans backed General MacArthur.
He addressed Congress, an honor usually awarded only to heads of government.
New York city honored him with a ticker-tape parade.
“Old soldiers never die, they just fade away.”MacArthur’s Farewell
Cost for America:
54,000 American lives
$67 billionSettling for a Stalemate
Looked for a way to promote his political career and he found it in anti-communism hysteria.
Feb. 1950 he attracted national attention in a speech in which he revealed 205 names that were known as being members of the Communist Party and who were still working and shaping policy in the State Department.Senator McCarthy
He was a member of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) where he browbeat, bullied and berated a nearly endless stream of suspected Communists called to testify.McCarthyism
Because of Hollywood’s high profile, it became the best known target of this infamous committee.HUAC
The courts at the time interpreted the 5th amendment did not apply to legislative proceedings like this – only to judicial ones.
They all served prison terms of between 6 months and 1 year.The Hollywood Ten
(1) they could claim they had never been members of the Communist Party. Since all had been, this would have been perjury;
(2) they could admit to being former or current Communists and “Name names”, but then lose their jobs; or
(3) they could remain silent. This is what they did, and they all lost their jobs.
This was not the end – there was a second wave of testimonies and many more in Hollywood were blacklisted from the industry.The Hollywood Ten
Ball's grandfather had been an old railroad man who idolized Eugene Debs and convinced young Lucy to register to vote in California as a Communist.
Years later when her "crime" was discovered, the blacklisters banned Lucy from the studios, thus ending a promising movie career.
She fought back by forming her own production company and making the well-known television series "I Love Lucy."I Love Lucy?
Any proposal for expanded government was perceived as a move toward communism.
Lawmakers at all levels passed laws to curb the communist threat:
Texas law made membership in the Communist Party a felony punishable by twenty years in prison.
New York City – citizens had to pledge their loyalty to the U.S. to obtain a fishing license.Anti-Communist Hysteria
His allegations repeatedly turned out to be empty, his political power decreased and his supporters abandoned him.
Last straw – he attacked an Army General on television – as a result the Senate passed a vote of censure in 1954.
Ironically, communism was never popular in the U.S. – in 1950 there were only 45,000 members.The End of McCarthyism
What is the message that is being portrayed by this political cartoon? Make sure you analyze:
He had a putting green installed on the White House lawn.
Eisenhower was the first president of all fifty states.
He was the first president to appear on color television.
He was superstitious. He carried three coins with him for good luck; a silver dollar, a five-guinea gold piece, and French franc.Tidbits on Eisenhower
Goal to prevent spread of communism by promising to use all of its force, including NUKES against aggressors.
A willingness to go to the edge or BRINK of all out war.
US Army/Navy trimmed, but expanded air force and build up of Nuclear weapons
Soviets followed suit
Fear of nuclear war became a constant in American life for thirty years.Brinkmanship
fell to communism in
Southeast Asia others
would fall as well
Eisenhower wanted to suspend the flights as he was preparing to engage in diplomatic talks with Khrushchev (Soviet leader).
One last flight was authorized in 1960 and that pilot (Francis Gary Powers) was shot down and captured by the Soviets – sentenced to ten years in prison.
At first Ike denied U2 spy flights Khrushchev had evidence, so demanded an apology and a cease of the flights. Eisenhower discontinued the flights but refused to apologize.
Khrushchev called off 1960 Summit and withdrew invitation for Ike to visit Soviet Union
Led to greater tensions between the two power in the 1960s.U-2 Incident
Shocked and frightened the U.S.
America began to place an emphasis on math and science in education.The Space Race Begins
Identify the significance of the statement below stated in reaction to the U.S. fear of Soviet power after the success of Sputnik…
“Those now in college will before long be living in the age of ICBM’s.
What will be then needed is not more engineers and scientists, but a people who will not panic…
and political leaders of wisdom, courage, and devotion, with capacity for solving intricate human problems
…not more Einsteins…. but more Washingtons