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Enzymes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Enzymes. What Are Enzymes?. Most enzymes are Proteins ( tertiary and quaternary structures) Act as Catalyst to accelerates a reaction Not permanently changed in the process. Enzymes. Are specific for what they will catalyze Are Reusable End in – ase -Sucrase -Lactase

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Presentation Transcript
what are enzymes
What Are Enzymes?
  • Most enzymes are Proteins (tertiary and quaternary structures)
  • Act as Catalyst to accelerates a reaction
  • Not permanently changed in the process
enzymes1
Enzymes
  • Are specific for what they will catalyze
  • AreReusable
  • End in –ase

-Sucrase

-Lactase

-Maltase

how do enzymes work
How do enzymes Work?

Enzymes work by weakening bonds which lowers activation energy

enzymes2
Enzymes

Without Enzyme

With Enzyme

Free

Energy

Free energy of activation

Reactants

Products

Progress of the reaction

enzyme substrate complex
Enzyme-Substrate Complex

Enzyme

The substance (reactant) an enzyme acts on is the substrate

Joins

Substrate

active site
Active Site

Enzyme

  • A restricted regionof an enzyme molecule which binds to the substrate.

Active Site

Substrate

induced fit
Induced Fit
  • A change in the shape of an enzyme’s active site
  • Induced by the substrate
induced fit1
Induced Fit

Active Site

substrate

Enzyme

induced fit

  • A change in the configuration of an enzyme’s active site (H+ and ionic bonds are involved).
  • Induced by the substrate.
what affects enzyme activity
What Affects Enzyme Activity?
  • Three factors:

1. Environmental Conditions

2. Cofactors (inorganic) and

Coenzymes (organic)

3. Enzyme Inhibitors

1 environmental conditions
1. Environmental Conditions

1. Extreme Temperature are the most dangerous

- high tempsmay denature (unfold) the enzyme.

2. pH (most like 6 - 8 pH near neutral)

3. Ionic concentration (salt ions)

two examples of enzyme inhibitors
Two examples of Enzyme Inhibitors

Enzyme

Competitive inhibitor

a. Competitive inhibitors: are chemicals that resemble an enzyme’s normal substrateand compete with it for the active site.

Substrate

inhibitors
Inhibitors

b. Noncompetitive inhibitors:

Inhibitors that do not enter theactive site, but bind toanother partof the enzymecausing the enzyme to change its shape, which in turn alters the active site.

Noncompetitive

Inhibitor

Enzyme

active site

altered

Substrate