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Quiet Revolution

Quiet Revolution. Quebec & Canada 1950’s – 1990’s. La Grande Noirceur. The Great Darkness. The Duplessis Years – 1936-1959 Union Nationale Dedeicated to preserving the importance of Quebec’s Roman Catholic faith and French language (often by shutting out the outside world)

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Quiet Revolution

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  1. Quiet Revolution Quebec & Canada 1950’s – 1990’s

  2. La Grande Noirceur

  3. The Great Darkness • The Duplessis Years – 1936-1959 • Union Nationale • Dedeicated to preserving the importance of Quebec’s Roman Catholic faith and French language (often by shutting out the outside world) • Refused federal programs that affected Quebec life • Refused federal grants for health care and education because he saw them as threats to traditional Quebec Society

  4. Duplessis’ Policies • Encouraged English-speaking business people, especially Americans, to establish industries in Quebec – tax breaks & special privileges • Built hydro-electric dams and factories • 500,000 rural Quebecers moved from farms to work in factories • Most were poorly paid and had to work hard just to make ends meet.

  5. Duplessis & Labour • Discouraged unions • Usually took side of business owners over workers • Asbestos strike in 1949 – ordered provincial police to break up picket lines and arrest strike leaders

  6. Need for change • Quebecers want change • Saw policies as old fashioned and restrictive • Quebec becoming very secular • More urban • Young intellectuals agitated for change • PET – Cite Libre

  7. The Quiet Revolution • 1960 – Quebec Liberals won a narrow victory in provincial election (Duplessis had died and UN was in disarray) • Jean Lesage was new Premier

  8. “Il faut que ce change!”

  9. Lesage’s changes • Professional civil service (formally lots of patronage) • Modernized outdated educational system (formally run by RC Church) • Improved transportation systems

  10. La Revolution Tranquille • Wanted a new, equal relationship with Canada recognized as one of the nation’s two founding peoples • Pressed federal government for “special status” for Quebec – felt Quebec needed more provincial powers to protect its language and culture • Wanted federal money for programs that they Quebec would run instead of Ottawa

  11. World’s stage 1967 – Canada’s Centennial celebrations 1967 – Expo ’67 in Montreal 1976 – XXI Olympic Summer Games

  12. Charles de Gaulle • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C0LQBcygNew&feature=related

  13. Old Institutions • Church • Intellectuals • English Business and money

  14. 1968 Watershed • Election of Pierre Elliot Trudeau • Trudeaumania • “Just Society” • Canadians like 'young' new PM - CBC Archives • Trudeaumania - CBC Archives

  15. FLQ Crisis • James Cross • Pierre Laporte • War Measures Act • Cells • Montreal Police • “Just Watch Me” • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-7_a2wa2dd4

  16. 1976 Provincial Election • Rene Levesque and Parti Quebecois win a majority and make a promise to hold a referendum on Sovereignty-Association

  17. 1979 Federal Election • Trudeau Loses power to Conservatives • Joe Clark is PM – Minority government • His government lasts only a few months before it is defeated in the House of Commons (May 1979 – February 1980)

  18. Official Languages Act • Canada was officially bilingual • Growth of French Immersion in provinces – encouraged students to study French

  19. Welcome to the 1980’s • Trudeau’s back • Fights and wins the 1980 Federal election (majority) and then goes on to fight the referendum in Quebec

  20. 1980 Referendum Question • "The Government of Quebec has made public its proposal to negotiate a new agreement with the rest of Canada, based on the equality of nations; this agreement would enable Quebec to acquire the exclusive power to make its laws, levy its taxes and establish relations abroad — in other words, sovereignty — and at the same time to maintain with Canada an economic association including a common currency; any change in political status resulting from these negotiations will only be implemented with popular approval through another referendum; on these terms, do you give the Government of Quebec the mandate to negotiate the proposed agreement between Quebec and Canada?"

  21. Referendum results • 60% voted against the resolution • Rene Levesque promises to fight again • Trudeau promises to make Canada an independent nation with Quebec as an equal partner

  22. Constitutional Negotiations • 1980-82 – • Gang of 8 • Group of 3 • Supreme Court Reference – Amending Formulae • Issue: Parliamentary Supremacy vs. Individual Rights

  23. Night of the Long Knives • Trudeau threatens a national Referendum • Gang of 8 folds • Compromise: Section 33 • 33.   (1) Parliament or the legislature of a province may expressly declare in an Act of Parliament or of the legislature, as the case may be, that the Act or a provision thereof shall operate notwithstanding a provision included in section 2 or sections 7 to 15 of this Charter.

  24. Provincial Premiers fall in line • Except Levesque….. • Quebec does not sign • Trudeau ensures 3 signatures on Royal Proclamation are Quebecers

  25. 1984 • Trudeau takes a walk in the snow • Brian Mulroney wins largest majority in Canadian history • Promises “National Reconciliation”

  26. 1985 • Robert Bourassa elected Premier of Quebec….again • Lowell Murray et al visited provinces • 5 demands

  27. Quebec’s 5 Demands • recognition of the province of Quebec as a "distinct society" • a constitutional veto for Quebec • increased provincial powers with respect to immigration • reasonable financial compensation to opt out of any future federal programs • 3 Supreme Court judges from Quebec

  28. Meech Lake Accord • Granted Quebec’s 5 demands • Gave much the same deal to all provinces • 3 years to ratify from June 30, 1987 • NB’s Hatfield holds off ratification vote until after election

  29. Concerns • Distinct Society • Old Boys Club/Behind Closed Doors process • Trudeau back again • “…With a bang, not a whimper”

  30. June 1990 • Accord Collapses • Bloc Quebecois formed • Oka Crisis • Canada about to go to war in Persian Gulf • PM Mulroney very unpopular

  31. Spicer Commission • Proposals from all Canadians • Joe Clark • Charlottown Accord 1992 • National Referendum – defeated by Canadians

  32. 1993 • Mulroney gone • Kim Campbell there for a while • Rise of Jean Chrétien

  33. 1995 Referendum • Jacques Parrizeau • 50.6% - 49.4% • “…money and the ethnic vote.”

  34. Supreme Court Reference • Federalism • Democracy • Constitutionalism & the Rule of Law • Accommodation of minorities • Clear majority on a clear question • Clarity Act

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