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2008 ITRS Emerging Research Materials [ERM] July 16, 2008. Michael Garner – Intel Daniel Herr – SRC. Hiro Akinaga AIST Nobuo Aoi Matsushita Koyu Asai Renesas Yuji Awano Fujitsu Daniel-Camille Bensahel STM

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2008 itrs emerging research materials erm july 16 2008

2008 ITRSEmerging Research Materials[ERM]July 16, 2008

Michael Garner – Intel

Daniel Herr –SRC

2008 erm participants

HiroAkinaga AIST

Nobuo Aoi Matsushita

Koyu Asai Renesas

Yuji Awano Fujitsu

Daniel-Camille Bensahel STM

Bill Bottoms Nanonexus

George Bourianoff Intel

Alex Bratkovski HP

John Carruthers Port. State Univ.

U-In Chung Samsung

Hongjie Dai Stanford Univ.

Jean Dijon LETI

Satoshi Fujimura TOK

Michael Garner Intel

Joe Gordon IBM

Dan Herr SRC

Jim Hutchby SRC

Kohei Ito Keio Univ.

James Jewett Intel

Ted Kamins HP

Louis Lome IDA cons.

Francois Martin LETI

Fumihiro Matsukura Tohoku U

Yoshio Nishi Stanford

Yaw Obeng NIST

Nachiket Raravikar Intel

2008 ERM Participants

Curt Richter NIST

Dave Roberts Air Products

Tadashi Sakai Toshiba

Mitusru Sato TOK

Sadasivan Shankar Intel

Atsushi Shiota JSRMicro

Kaushal Singh AMAT

Naoyuki Sugiyama Toray

Shinichi Tagaki U of Tokyo

Koki Tamura TOK

Yasuhide Tomioka AIST

Ken Uchida Toshiba

Bert Vermiere Env. Metrol. Corp.

Yasuo Wada Toyo U

Vijay Wakharkar Intel

Kang Wang UCLA

H.S. Philip Wong Stanford University

Hiroshi Yamaguchi NTT

Toru Yamaguchi NTT

Victor Zhirnov SRC

Macromolecular scale devices are on the itrs horizon

Macromolecular Scale Devices


Macromolecular Scale Devices are on the ITRS Horizon

Macromolecular Scale Components:

Low dimensional nanomaterials


Directed self-assembly

Complex metal oxides

Hetero-structures and interfaces

Spin materials

Revised 2006 from: D. Herr and V. Zhirnov, Computer, IEEE, pp. 34-43 (2001).


  • ERM Goals, Scope, Plans

  • ERM for extending CMOS

    • Alternate Channel Materials

    • Lithography

    • FEP

    • Interconnects

  • ERM for Beyond CMOS

  • Assembly & packaging Example

  • ERM Metrology & Modeling Needs

  • ESH

  • Summary

Emerging research materials erm
Emerging Research Materials [ERM]

  • Goal:Identify critical ERM technical and timing requirements for ITWG identified applications

    • Align ERM requirements with ITWG needs

      • ERM with potential value to ITWG Gaps

      • Difficult challenges that must be overcome

    • Consolidate materials research requirements for:

      • University and government researchers

        • Chemists, materials scientists, etc.

      • Industry Researchers

        • Semiconductor

        • Chemical, material, and equipment suppliers

Erm potential itwg applications
ERM Potential ITWG Applications

Potential Applications Identified

2008 key messages
2008 Key Messages

  • No updates in ERM Chapter in 2008

  • Preparations for 2009 ERM Chapter

    • Establish Critical Assessment Process

    • Add ERD Alternate Channel Materials

    • Carbon Based Devices for Beyond CMOS

    • Workshop Preparations

Extending cmos alternate channel materials

Carbon Nanotube FET

Extending CMOS Alternate Channel Materials


Alternate Channel Materials

-Ge & III-V Compounds



-Carbon Nanotubes


Materials Performance

Gate materials



III-V Heterostructures

(L. Samuelson, Lund Univ.)

A. Geim, Manchester U.

-Also Identify Novel Metrology & Modeling Needs

Source Intel

Alternate channel materials ge iii v
Alternate Channel MaterialsGe & III-V

Challenge: n & p MOS devices with high performance & integration on Silicon

  • Deposition of III-V, Ge on Silicon

  • High K dielectric deposition on passivated surfaces

  • E-Workshop Planned July 22, 2008

Carbon based electronics
Carbon Based Electronics

Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene


  • Synthesis control on silicon in required locations

  • Control of electronic properties

    • Bandgap

    • Carrier type and concentration

  • Contact Resistance

Carbon nanotubes challenges
Carbon Nanotubes Challenges

  • Deposition in Defined Location & Direction

  • Synthesis with controlled bandgap

  • Control of carrier concentration

  • Gate Dielectric Deposition

  • Low contact resistance for small diameter CNTs

Graphene device challenges
Graphene Device Challenges

  • Growth on desired substrates

  • Control of bandgap (width dependent)

  • Graphene edge structure & passivation

  • Gate dielectric growth

  • Contact formation and resistance

  • Interface passivation

1d charge state

Carbon Nanotube FET

Graphene & Graphitic Carbon

Quantum Dot

A. Geim, Manchester U.

1D Charge State

Atomically smooth

III-V Heterostructures

(L. Samuelson, Lund Univ.)

Source Intel

  • Nanotube Challenges

  • Control of Location &

  • Direction

  • Control of Bandgap

  • Contact Resistance

Group IV & III-V Nanowires

Grow in 111 Orientation

Catalyst determines location

(T. Kamins, et. al., HP)

Advantage: Patternable

Challenge: Deposition, Edge Passivation

Carrier doping & control is

challenging for low

dimensional materials

Erm to extend moore s law





Dendrimers, Frechet, UC-B

ERM to Extend Moore’s Law



Front End Processes

  • Novel molecules

  • Directed Self Assembly

Directed Self Assembly

-Selective Deposition

-Selective Etching

-Deterministic Doping


Molecular Glasses

Ober, Cornell

Y. Awano,Fujitsu


-Self Assembled Materials

Ross, MIT

P. Nealey, U. Wisc.

Emerging lithography applications
Emerging Lithography Applications

Macromolecular Architectures

Molecular Glasses and PAGS, Ober, Cornell

Polymer Design, R. Allen, IBM

  • Resist: Unique Properties

  • Immersion: Low leaching and low surface energy

  • EUV: Low outgassing, high speed and flare tolerant

  • Imprint Materials

  • Low viscosity

  • Easy release

  • Directed Self-Assembly

  • Resolution, LER, density, defects, required shapes, throughput, registration and alignment

Dendrimers, Frechet, UC-B

25 nm L/S

Directed di-block Copolymer Self

Assembly P. Nealey, U. Wisc.

Sublithographic resolution and registration Ross, MIT

Design pattern requirements for directed self assembly
Design Pattern Requirements forDirected Self-Assembly

Emerging fep applications



Emerging FEP Applications

  • Deterministic Doping

  • Selective Processes/Cleans

    • Macromolecules

    • Self-assembling materials and processes


# of channel electrons

  • Conductance variability reduced from 63% to 13% by controlling dopant numbers and roughly ordered arrays;

  • Conductance due to implant positional variability within circular implant regions of the ordered array ~13%.


From Shinada et. Al., “Enhancing Semiconductor Device Performance Using Ordered Dopant Arrays”, Nature, 437 (20) 1128-1131 (2005) [Waseda University]

D. Herr, with data from the 2005 ITRS

Emerging interconnect applications
Emerging Interconnect Applications

Y. Awano, Fujitsu

  • Vias

  • Multi-wall CNT

  • Higher density

  • Contact Resistance

  • Adhesion

  • Interconnects

  • Metallic

  • Alignment

  • Contact Resistance

  • Dielectrics

  • Novel Polymer ILDs

ERMs Must Have Lower Resistivity

Quartz Crystal Step Alignment


H. Dai, Stanford Univ.

Ref. 2005 ITRS, INT TWG, p. 22

Beyond cmos materials interfaces
Beyond CMOS Materials & Interfaces

Molecular State



Spin State

  • Resistance

  • Change

  • Mechanical State

  • Electrochemical

  • Atomic Switch


  • Ferromagnetic Materials, Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors

  • Complex Metal Oxides

  • Strongly Correlated Electron State Materials (FE, FM, FE & FM)

  • Molecules

  • Interfaces & “state” transport materials


  • Individual or

  • Collective

Beyond cmos device applications
Beyond CMOS Device Applications

Device RequirementEmerging Materials

  • Spin Ferromagnetic Materials & Oxides

  • Collective Effects Ferromagnetic, Strongly Correlated Electron State Materials

  • Molecular Molecules

  • Memory Complex Metal Oxides

    *Fuse/anti-fuse, Ferroelectric FET, etc.

All Devices have critical interface requirements

*Representative Device Applications

Spin state
Spin State

Room temperature



(T curie)

Carrier mediated exchange

  • Reports of high Currie temperature FM semiconductors

    • GeMn Nanocolumns >400K

    • SiMn >400K

    • (InMn)P ~300K

    • Need verification & more study

Need Room Temp FM Semiconductor

Complex metal oxides
Complex Metal Oxides

  • Complex Metal Oxides

    • MgO, Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3, La1-xSrxMnO3 , BiFeO3

  • Memory

    • FeFET (Ferroelectric polarization)

    • Fuse-antifuse (Resistance change, etc.)

  • Logic

    • Spin Tunnel Barriers

    • Novel Logic Heterostructures (Coupling charge to magnetic properties & alignment)

  • Challenges

    • Control of Vacancies

    • Contact stability

      • Hydrogen degradation

    • Electric field & environmental stability

    • Control of stress & crystal structure

RHEED excited Cathodoluminescence

Oxygen Vacancies

D. Winkler, et. al. 2005

2008 itrs emerging research materials erm july 16 2008





Novel Properties at Hetero-interfaces


J. Mannhart et. al. 2006

Augsburg Univ.

Critical thickness

Hetero-interfaces may enable novel coupling of properties!!

Emerging packaging applications
Emerging Packaging Applications

Thermal Nanotubes

  • Package Thermo-Mechanical

  • Substrate: Nanoparticles, Macromolecules

  • Adhesives: Macromolecules, Nanoparticles

  • Chip Interconnect: Nanoparticles

  • High Density Power Delivery Capacitors

  • Dielectrics: High K

  • Self Assembly

  • Interconnects: Nanotubes or Nanowires

Emerging metrology and modeling needs
Emerging Metrology and Modeling Needs

  • Metrology

    • Chemical and structural imaging and dimensional accuracy at the nm scale

    • Low dimensional material properties (Mapping)

    • Nano-interface characterization (carbon)

    • Simultaneous spin and electrical properties

    • nm scale characterization of vacancies and defects

  • Modeling Materials and Interfaces

    • Low dimensional material synthesis & properties

    • Spin material properties

    • Strongly correlated electron material properties

      • Long range and dynamic

    • Integrated models and metrology (de-convolution of nm scale metrology signals)

  • Metrology and modeling must be able characterize and predict performance and reliability

Environment safety and health
Environment, Safety, and Health

  • Metrology needed to detect the presence of nanoparticles

  • Research needed on potential undesirable bio-interactions of nanoparticles

  • Need Hierarchical Risk/Hazard assessment protocol

    • Research, Development, Commercialization

  • Leverage Existing Research and Standards Activities


  • ERM identifies materials with desirable properties that may enable potential solutions for ITWG applications

  • Significant challenges must be addressed for these materials to be viable for transfer to the ITWGs

  • Future:

    • Refine and update ERM requirements

    • Assess ERM progress toward meeting identified application requirements

    • Identify new ITWG application opportunities for ERM

    • Identify new families of Emerging Research Materials