Political party and public movement. Lecture № 10 (13) . Brief contents:. 1. Concept of political party. 2. Basic purposes, task and functions of political party. 3. Concept of party system. Classification of party systems. . 1. Concept of political party.
Lecture № 10 (13)
The term "party" (from Latin “pars”) is mean part, group.
Aristotle wrote about parties of inhabitants of mountain, plain.
A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns.
«Party is public organization basing on voluntary reception of members, putting to itself the. purpose a gain of power for the management and maintenance of power for the management and maintenance with members of corresponding conditions (spiritual and material) for reception of the certain material benefits either personal privileges, or that and another simultaneously.
R. Douzwrites, that « Parties are special kind of public organization having a precise orientation on gain political power that makes them most political of all political organizations”.
Ideal types of political parties
“Political party is organizational group of adherents representing interests of a part of people and putting purpose their realization by a gain of the government or participation of its realization”.
From all definitions clearly, that the basic purpose of political parties is the gain of the higher power in political systems.
The functions of political party:
1. Social representation - any political party expresses - certain social interests, strata’s and is their leader on a political arena.
2.Social integration and socialization is achievement of consentbetween conflicting social groups, and also inclusions of person in the world of politics.
3.Struggle for power - purpose of any political party is participation in imperious attitudes
4.Political recruiting, formation of ruling elite - here is understood selection, preparation and promotion of the staff, both for the party, and for other political structures.
5.Development and realization of a course - is expressed in definition of the purposes and political orientation of development of political system and society as a whole
According to the classical approach of Party in representative system carry out, at least, three functions:
In political science is distributed classification of stages of becoming of political parties offered by Max Weber:
Depending on ideological shape parties are divided on:
Party system is cumulative communication of parties working within-framework of programs and charters and struggling for government. In the world there is big variety of party systems, but in general view of party system is possible pretend one-party and multi -party, but there is also an intermediate two-partysystem.
One-party system is party system with unique party in power and frequently incurs more obligations, carrying out in part, and sometimes and completely functions of state
Two-party system is characteristic attribute of exclusive state on political arena of two basic parties, alternately exchanging each other at power. One of them ruling, another is oppositional, from time to time changing each other.
Multi-party system are systems functioning at state level as steady coalitions of two or more parties keeping allied attitudes, not only at participation in government, but also in opposition. Basically multi-party systems exist in societies with "multi-class" and "various strata of society" structure.
Multi-party system at the decision of questions on executive power divide on ways: coalition and bipolar.
Political movement represents solidity political activity of big group of citizens, directed on achievement of any significant political end.
Some from political movements are possible manage rather long period, and they become significant political force. Remove governments and political parties are compelled to be considered. To such is possible to attribute movement in protection of human rights, environment.