Home Sweet Home Or is it…
Review of Adventures Troy- starts with 12 ships Ismaros- Kikones- loses 72 men Lotus Eaters Polyphemos- loses 6 men Aeolus Laestrygonians- loses all ships and crew except for his Kirke- 1 year Hades Back to Kirke
Adventures Continued Sirens Skylla and Kharybdis- loses 6 men Thrinakia-The Cattle of Helios- loses all men and ships Kalypso- 7 years Skheria- this is where the story beings- in medias res Ithaka- Home!!!
Motifs in Books 13-24 • Deception • Illusion vs. Reality • Prophesies • Disguises • Revelations • Reunions
Gifts and Departure • Now Odysseus has finished his tales, and thus reviewed all the steps that have gone into establishing his identity -- that of the man of many ways, of tricks and mind as well as might. He is also a great storyteller • Honored for this identity by the Phaiakians • Gifts are the visible sign of the honor paid him • How does Alkinoos suggest they will pay back this expense? • Odysseus is anxious to leave- Epic simile? • As Odysseus is about to depart, notice how Odysseus gives a wine cup to Queen Arete • This is another example of how powerful females seem to constantly send men on these important voyages in the Odyssey • Who else?
Sleep and Dreams • As he journeys out of the realm of fairyland, a place between life and death, notice how Odysseus sleeps. • Some literature suggests that in some legends people like the Phaiakians were people who conducted humans between our world and the land of the dead or the divine realm. • Naturally, then, Odysseus sleeps • Epic Simile to describe journey? • Sleep as an archetype: • Crucial for physical and/or psychological healing. During dreams, person can grow. Person can fantasize freely in sleep. A transitional and beneficial period. In dream sphere can descend to the sphere of the Great Mother. Person awakens with a greater understanding of human nature (Knapp 88).
Poseidon • Notice too, as Poseidon comments, that Odysseus comes back with more material possessions (and thus honor) than he would have had if he had not suffered these terrible trials • This is symbolic of the great rewards of struggle. • Where else do we see examples of this? • Poseidon's turning to stone of the ship is perhaps a type of explanation of why nobody in Homer's day had ever seen a Phaiakian. • After Poseidon's rebuke, they never come here anymore.
Poseidon and Zeus • The Phaiakians offered hospitality to Odysseus and other castaways • Why does Zeus allow Poseidon to punish them? • Why does he limit the punishment?
Meeting Athena • When Odysseus is returned, he is wrapped in a mist and doesn’t know where he is. • Significance? • He meets his magic helper Athena- disguised • Her very proud description of Ithaka tempts Odysseus to at once announce his identity, but he is too shrewd for that. • What does he tell her? Cretan Tale • Lesson of Agamemnon
Why does Athena love Odysseus? • What do they have in common? What actions reveal this? • Athena helps him hide the Phaiakian gifts and together they sit down to plot the suitors’ destruction. • Athena uses her divine powers to make Odysseus look like a beggar before she leaves to fetch Telemakhosfrom Sparta. • Why is this disguise appropriate? • Where have we seen this tactic used before?
Book 14: Odysseus & Eumaios • In Book 13, we saw the reunion of Odysseus and Athene, and the disguise of Odysseus. • Book 14 is all about the start of Odysseus’ testing of the Ithakans. Eumaios the swineherd is first. • Is Eumaios a good host? • What does Odysseus learn from him? • What does Odysseus tell Eumaios, and how does Eumaios react to it? • What object is Odysseus trying to get from Eumaios?