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Overview Lecture 13 Successful Aging. 1. Successful Aging: Theoretical Perspectives 2. Age and Creativity Simonton Model Last Works. Theoretical Perspectives on Successful Aging. Focus of Successful Aging theories and research. Factors that contribute to survival

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overview lecture 13 successful aging
Overview Lecture 13Successful Aging

1. Successful Aging: Theoretical Perspectives

2. Age and Creativity

Simonton Model

Last Works

slide2

Theoretical Perspectives on Successful Aging

Focus of Successful Aging theories and research

  • Factors that contribute to survival
  • Enhanced spirit and joy in life
  • “Mental health”
slide3

Theoretical Perspectives on Successful Aging

MacArthur Foundation Study of Successful Aging

Absence of disease

High physical and cognitive functioning

Maintain engagement with life

slide4

Theoretical Perspectives on Successful Aging

account

for

Social Indicator Model of Well-Being

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Marital status
  • Income

Well-Being

Older adults should have lower well-being

slide5

Theoretical Perspectives on Successful Aging

Paradox of Well-Being

Older adults are lower on social indicators

(e.g., income, health, education, marital status)

They have high levels of well-being

BUT

Successful aging is the norm

slide6

Theoretical Perspectives on Successful Aging

Percent who rate selves as happy

Mroczek & Kolarz 1998

slide7

Theoretical Perspectives on Successful Aging: Subjective Well-Being

Definition and Measurement

Subjective well-being

  • Overall sense of happiness

Life satisfaction

  • Cognitive evaluation of one’s life circumstances

MIDUS study of midlife

2700+ participants

25-74 years, average= 46

Factors contributing to subjective well-being

slide8

Theoretical Perspectives on Successful Aging: Subjective Well-Being

Findings of MIDUS Study

  • Women: positive affect highest in oldest groups
  • Men: higher positive affect scores in later life only for introverted (extroverted were higher throughout)
  • Older groups of married men had lower scores than younger married men
slide9

Theoretical Perspectives on Successful Aging: Subjective Well-Being

Set Point Perspective

Well-being reflects personality traits

  • Biologically determined temperament sets boundaries for levels of well-being
slide10

Theoretical Perspectives on Successful Aging: Subjective Well-Being

Possible Ways to Achieve High Well-Being

  • Adaptation or habituation
  • Feeling of making progress toward goals
  • Coping strategies
  • Social comparison
  • Life story as reflection of identity processes
slide11

Productivity and Creativity:

The Relationship Between Age and Creativity

Early Studies

  • Analysis of significant contributions
  • Peak productivity between 30-35
  • Peak varies by discipline

Lehman

slide12

Productivity and Creativity:

The Relationship Between Age and Creativity

26-30

55-60

40-44

Lehman’s Findings for Three Disciplines

Chemistry

Chief Ministers

“Best Books”

slide13

Productivity and Creativity:

The Relationship Between Age and Creativity

Lehman’s Conclusions

  • Earlier peaks in sciences and fields depending on imagination and physical ability
  • Later peaks in fields that rely on experience and diplomacy
slide14

Productivity and Creativity:

The Relationship Between Age and Creativity

Early Studies

  • NUMBER (not quality) of creative works
  • Only people who lived to at least 80
  • Steep decline after peak age in arts
  • Decline after peak age in sciences
  • However, steady rate of production through late 60s

Dennis

slide15

Productivity and Creativity:

The Relationship Between Age and Creativity

Findings from Dennis (1966)

slide16

Productivity and Creativity:

The Relationship Between Age and Creativity

Summary Early Studies

Lehman

  • Rapid increase in creative output
  • Peak in 30s or early 40s
  • Steady decline thereafter

Dennis

Creative productivity unlikely to component of

successful aging.

But there are many well-known “older thinkers”

slide17

Productivity and Creativity:

The Relationship Between Age and Creativity

Problems With Counts of Productivity by Age

  • highly creative artists die before becoming “old” (e.g., Mozart)
  • Compositional fallacy- average productivity rates do not describe productivity of individuals in that group
slide18

Productivity and Creativity:

The Relationship Between Age and Creativity

Simonton’s Model of Age and Creative Production

a

Production of new ideas for new products

Ideation

Number of works in unlimited lifespan

p

m

Creative

Products

Creative

Potential

e

Calculated on basis of CAREER AGE

Elaboration

Transforming ideas into products

slide19

Productivity and Creativity:

The Relationship Between Age and Creativity

Model for Poetry and Pure Mathematics

Career age

slide20

Productivity and Creativity:

The Relationship Between Age and Creativity

Earliest “Last Work”

Typology of Career Trajectories

  • Variations by career onset and creative potential
  • Use formula to predict first, best, and last works

Low

High

Early

slide21

Productivity and Creativity:

The Relationship Between Age and Creativity

Latest “Last Work”

Typology of Career Trajectories

First

Best

Last

CREATIVE POTENTIAL

CAREER ONSET

Low

High

Late

slide22

Productivity and Creativity:

The Relationship Between Age and Creativity

Relation of Quantity to Quality

Equal Odds Rule

  • Positive relationship between quality and quantity
  • Highly productive older individuals have high probability of creating a masterwork
slide23

Productivity and Creativity:

The Relationship Between Age and Creativity

Conclusions from Simonton’s Research

  • Emphasis on career age not actual age
  • Productivity in later life higher among those who begin later
  • However, high creative potential leads to high rate of productivity early and later in career
  • Longer span for highly creative between first and last works
  • Model allows for possibility of highly creative older people
slide24

Productivity and Creativity:

The Relationship Between Age and Creativity

Characteristics of Last Works

  • Eliminates fine details
  • Presents essence of work’s meaning
  • More subjective, less objective

Artists

“Old age style”

Musicians

  • Shorter main themes
  • Simpler melodies

“Swan Song”

  • Integration and synthesis
  • Studies of aging
  • Research on aging

Scientists

Stimulated by:

Proximity to death

Desire to leave legacy

Reaction to age-related changes