Biomass Energy Towards Substantial Green Energy Production in Karnataka Mr. G S Prabhu IFS Additional Principal Chief Conservator of Forests & Project Coordinator
Advantages of Biomass Energy (1/4)Ideal for rural areas - cheaper than other renewables • Biomass can be grown in sufficient quantities, perpetually • Biomass energy has an enormous potential to meet rural energy needs: the energy demand is very high in rural areas. • Biomass has potential to play major role in the Renewable Energy Revolution. • Biomass energy has distinctive advantages over other renewables like wind and sun: • Dispatchability • Decentralizability • Cost • Capital cost per MW for RE & conventional energy sources: INR 17 Crores for wind, INR 22 Crores for sun, INR 55 Crores for hydel • Capital cost per MW for biomass energy: INR 6 Crores for gasification, INR 5 Crores for Rankine cycle . Wind, sun & hydel energy is site & season specific. Biomass energy can be generated all round the year at any sites.
Advantages of Biomass Energy (2/4)Investing in Biomass means generating clean energy and generating income • Biomass energy generates income for the rural population • Biomass energy generates nearly INR 2 Crore income per MW / year to the agrarian economy through purchase of biomass alone • Additional incomes from growing, harvesting, briquetting & transporting biomass • No other capital investment of INR 5-7 crores can generate INR 2 crore incomes per year perpetually, to rural economy
Advantages of Biomass Energy (3/4)Flexibility and Scalability • Biomass can be grown, if quantities are not adequate to load demand • Alternately, generation capacity can be limited to biomass availability, to ensure power plant sustainability • If there is surplus of biomass and generation, it can be sold to ESCOMS or third party under open access
Advantages of Biomass Energy(4/4)Uplifting of villages by decentralized distribution and relief of grid • Biomass energy , generated in a decentralised /distributed manner, can provide good quality, reliable, dependable electricity to villages for lighting, drinking water supply, irrigation, milling & cottage industry • Good quality, 24x7 electricity uplifts rural economy. Start up for PURA Villages. • Self sufficient local generated energy relieves grid of the rural load. 60% of load demand is rural. This load can be diverted to meet urban demands.
Locations of Biomass Energy PlantsThe right location is crucial • Biomass power plants are ideally to be located at the Gram Panchayat level (local village government) to meet the jurisdictional villages entire energy • Proximity to biomass catchment and villages • reduces the C footprint/cost in transport of biomass • facilitates availability of local manpower for construction & O&M • reduces T&D losses • Ideally, catchments & distribution to be in a radius of 25-50 kms • 1 MW to 5 MW can be generated, depending on energy demand & biomass availability in vicinity
Implementation Doing it in the phased manner in stages is crucial • Phased development enables accurate determination of biomass availability and potential for growing biomass, for maintaining sustainability of the power plant • The capacity for the entire GP load is to be established over a period of 12 -15 years in four /five phases. This enables development of management skills in the GP & O&M capacity in rural youth and in technological up gradations • Generation should range from minimum to peak load demand to ensure round the clock power to the villages • The power plants are to be managed by the GP / GP committees if established by Government. • Private parties will manage the plants if they set up the plants as private power producers
Insight into the situation in Karnataka • Biomass power plant of 1MW – 5MW capacity in each GP can provide 24x7 electricity to all the villages/hamlets in Karnataka. Presently all villages suffering from acute load shedding • Karnataka has a potential to generate 5000 MW of biomass electricity from woody biomass and agricultural residues • Peak demand in Karnataka ranges from 5500 -7000 MW. 60% is rural demand. • In 3434 Gram Panchayat (GP) jurisdiction, there are over 33026 electrified villages/hamlets • All these villages /hamlets electricity requirement can be met from good quality, reliable, dependable locally generated biomass energy • Good quality ,reliable /dependable electricity stimulates efficiency in usage.
Biomass Energy • Any biomass having a density of more than 250 kgs per m3 can be used for gasification • Rankine cycle requires biomass of high calarofic values, resulting in usage of up to 30% coal,reducing the carbon neutrality of the process • In Rankine method, 7MW capacity economicaly viable; 2 plants of 4MW in operation in India; 2MW capacity is likely to enter the Indian market
Gasification • Enables power generation at sub MW levels from 5KW • Technology for power generation has grown well since last 25 years • Capacity to build gasifiers upto 1.2MW now available indegeneously • Producer gas engines of 250 KW & 644 KW available indegeneously • Gasification power plants of 1 to 5 MW can be set up under one roof in modular design • If one reactor/engine is shut down for maintainence, other can be functional in modular design, enabling despatchability
GASSIFICATION • 100% C neutral. • Sawdust, paddy husk, peanut shell, etc., leaf litter, grasses & weeds like Eupatorium, Parthenium etc can be used for briquetting. Ash content for gasification to be less than 5%. Briquette density to be more than 750 kgs per m3. • Briquetting generates cottage industry in the rural areas adding to rural incomes. • Briquetting can also be made a part of the power plant. • Woody species like Prosopis, Lantana, etc. growing wild in wastelands can be used for gasification. • Even bamboo, the fastest growing plant in the world can be used for power generation. • Plantations can be raised forest lands, common lands , wastelands & farm lands. • Increasing the tree cover on farmlands to 20% of the agriculture area will not affect food security.
WOODY SPECIES • At present ,the tree cover on farm lands is less than 1% in all States & 5% only in the Punjab. • Soobabul, Glyricidia, Calliandra etc. which are good coppicers, can be cultivated on farmlands & used for gasification. • Procurring ,handling & processing woody biomass is convinient & less expensive than agri residue/briquetting. Woody biomass is available enmasse/enbloc. • Biomass power is largely misunderstood as a cause for disforestment.
Biomass Production • 15000 tonnes of biomass is required for generating 1 MW / year electricity • It is more economical and environmentally benign to harness sun energy in biomass plantations and generate biomass electricity than generate electricity from sun in solar panels • Solar energy missions should also provide funding for harnessing sun energy throurgh chlorophyl
Afforestation • The benefits of afforestation for soil, water food, the environment and ecological security is legendary • Afforestation captures carbon and helps mitigate global warming & climate change • 1500 hectares of tree plantations are required to generate biomass for 1MW / year of power production. • Woody biomass can be produced/procurred enmasse/enblock • Cost of raising biomass ranges from INR 700.00 to INR 900.00 per tonne • By coppicing/pollarding/natural regeneration, cost is much less. • Transport and handling cost is around INR 500.00 per tonne for a distance of up to 100 km • Agricultural residue is a defacto product of agriculture
Biomass Energy for Urban AreasExamples of usage • Captive biomass gasification plants are appropriate for urban industries • An industry in Hosur TN has set up a 250 KW gasification power plant for meeting grid shortages • Plant is operated for 24 hours a day,6 days a week, increasing their industrial productivity • Woody biomass is purchased @ INR1.90 per kg • SFC for gasification is about 1.30 kgs per kwh • Simmilar plants of 1.20mw capacity, modular design, are in operation in Coimbatore & Kuttam TN for captive power for industry due to grid shortages. These biomass gasifier power plants have increased the industries productivity. • A fero alloys industry from AP has shown interest in gasification power & have consulted/ visited BERI.
Diesel vs. Biomass • Diesel genset consumes 300 ml of diesel per KWH costing INR 14.00 per KWH at subsidised diesel prices. Genset capital costs INR 1.25 to INR 1.50 crores per MW capacity • Gasification plant capital cost INR 7 crores per MW capacity. Operating cost is around INR 4.50 per KWH. CDM and carbon credits also available. 1 KWH of biomass energy reduces 0.79kgs of carbon emission • Capital and operating cost though important to industry, 24x7 self generated power increases productivity and cost is absorbed in end product.CDM is important to the industry and to the nation • Subsidies from GOI (Government of India) MNRE and loan assistance from IREDA available for biomass power • Carbon conscious large farmers can also set up gasification plants and get 24x7 electricity for their agri operations .Biomass is de facto free of cost as it is available on site.
Beri Status (1/3) • 1mw gasification plant set up in 3 location in Tumkur district with GEF- UNDP, ICEF, GOI & GOK finance • 100 kw gasifier is in continuous operation with the technical support & guidance from the CGPL IISc who are the technology providers • 300 kw will become operational in Jan 2011. New filtering system developed by the CGPL IISc are being installed for reducing filter down time. • 5 villages are proposed to be given this 24x7 gasification power by summer of 2011, by going off grid during rural load shedding, to demonstrate the despatch capability of biomass gasification electricity • 250kw will be operational in Apr/May 2011 & Dec 2011 at other two locations • These works are now being taken up with the technical guidance & support from the CGPL IISc
Beri Status (2/3) • Power evacuated to grid at present.All three plants are grid connected • Proposal to give off grid 300kw power to 5 villages 24x7 around the plant by summer of 2011 to demonstrate the supremacy of despatchability of biomass power in meeting rural loads
BERI Status (3/3) • BERI gasifiers have generated 496216 kwh of electricity & have contributed to the reduction of nearly 350 tonnes of C • BERI has established 3000 ha of dedicated plantations & has encouraged Farm Forestry to meet plants biomass requirement. These plantations have mitigated nearly 10000 tonnes of C by sequestration. The charcoal & ash left from the gasification process is ploughed back into farmlands & plantations for increased productivity & for completing the sequestration cycle. • Charcoal has activation property directly or with heat treatment. This has sale value which can pay or more than pay cost of biomass. • BERI is now exploring the scope of using agri residue briquettes for gassification, by Nov 2011.
Tariffs • At present there is no separate tariff for gasifcation power in Karnataka. • Rankine cycle tariff is applied for gasification • Tariff of Rs 5.00 to 6.00 per kwh is required for gasification which leaves a reasonable profit margin to investors • UNDP has appointed a consultant to work on tariffs based on BERI experience • Several other academic groups are presently working on gasification tariffs
Energy for all seasons - Energy for all reasons • Biomass energy can be generated in all seasons and is applicable for all purposes like electricity generation, heat/thermal application and cooking. Our focus is on electricity generation. • Thermal application of gasification is used by a chemical industry in TN, for replacing furnace oil and costs and as CDM. A steel rerolling mill in Pudacherry is using this heat for melting scrap iron. • Thermal application of gasification is used in some hotels/ bakeries for cooking/food processing. Is in use by silk reeling industry in Bangalore since long time. • Was used for domestic heating & cooking in Europe / US before coal/petrol/diesel/gas. • Wind and sun and hydel are site and season specific and have limiting despatchability
Urban and Industrial Demand • Urban & industrial demand has to be met from base loads alone. Biomass can provide Tier II energy services in rural areas & captive power to small industries in peri urban areas. • Large sized biomass plants not feasible. • Nuclear power to eventually replace fossil power from coal, oil & gas • Wind, sun & biomass cannot replace base loads. They have decentralised applicability. • The C footprints in the manufacture of solar harnessing systems & their disposal to be evaluated • Wind & solar farms & hydel projects require large areas of biodiversity & wildlife habitats • Run of the river hydel plants are seasonal & generate power when hydel energy is in surplus & rural load is minimum due to monsoons. • Biomass energy is energy for all seasons & for all reasons in view of its despatachability. If the entire rural load is met from biomass energy in the next 20-25 years, it would be one of the best things to happen to any State in this century !
Thank you. Biomass Energy for Rural India Project Contact: FORTI Campus, Doresanypalya, Arekere Mico Layout, Bannarghatta Road, Bangalore 560076. www.bioenergyindia.com email@example.com