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A strategy towards enhanced bio-energy production from cane biomass. LJC Autrey KTKF Kong Win Chang AF Lau . MSIRI April 2006. Land area (Thousand hectares). Roadmap. 2015. PART I. Bio-energy potential based on current technologies and cane varieties . Electricity. Island. Coal

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slide1

A strategy towards enhanced bio-energy production from cane biomass

LJC Autrey

KTKF Kong Win Chang

AF Lau

MSIRI

April 2006

slide2

Land area

(Thousand hectares)

Roadmap

2015

slide3

PART I

Bio-energy potential

based on

current technologies and cane varieties

slide5

Island

Coal

534

Bag

301

Sugar Industry

Electricity output in Mauritius(GWh)

3000

2015

slide6

Coal

860

Coal

740

Island

Coal

534

Bag

465

Bag

400

Bag

301

Sugar Industry

Electricity output in Mauritius(GWh)

3000

Assumption:

5.5 million tonnes cane

130 kWh/t cane

65% total by coal

Savannah

2 x 42 MW in 2007

Savannah

3 x 42 MW in 2008

1325

1140

2015

2007/08

slide7

Savannah power plant under construction

2 x 42 MW in 2007

3 x 42 MW in 2008

slide8

Coal

860

Coal

1120

Coal

740

Island

Coal

534

Bag

400

Bag

600

Bag

465

Bag

301

Sugar Industry

Electricity output in Mauritius(GWh)

3000

Assumption:

5.5 million tonnes cane

130 kWh/t cane

65% total by coal

F.U.E.L

1720

2015

2009

slide9

Coal

740

Coal

1300

Coal

860

Coal

1120

Island

Coal

534

Bag

465

Bag

700

Bag

400

Bag

600

Bag

301

Sugar Industry

Electricity output in Mauritius(GWh)

3000

Assumption:

5.5 million tonnes cane

130 kWh/t cane

65% total by coal

2000

Medine

2015

2012

slide10

Projected electricity export from bagasse (kWh/t cane)

The potential that will be exploited between 2007 & 2012 ?

Belle Vue

Target by 2012

A minimum of 130 kWh/t cane

4 co-generation plants instead of 10

82

bar

boiler

Factory no.

slide11

Projected electricity export from bagasse (GWh)

700

In spite of a reduction of land area for cane cultivation, electricity production will rise to 700 GWh using current technologies and existing cane varieties.

2012

slide13

Ethanol is currently produced with molasses

Maximum 33 000 tonnes

Alcodis Mauritius

Blending with gasoline to start soon

slide14

PART II

Strategic Research to Enhance

Bio-energy potential

New Technologies & New Cane Varieties

slide15

Strategic Research in Mauritius

To enhance bio-energy production

  • Breeding for more biomass
  • Collecting maximum trash from the fields
  • Ethanol from bagasse
  • Bagasse gasification technologies
slide16

Strategic Research in Mauritius

To enhance bio-energy production

1.

Breeding for more biomass

slide17

1980’s

  • Intensification of interspecific programme with available wild species in germplasm collection for:
  • Genetic base-broadening
  • Windfall gain for enhancement of fibre

Evaluation of Interspecific crosses

slide18

1990’s

470 (F1, BC1, BC2) new parent varieties available in collection for high fibre cane

slide19

2005 - 2007

Evaluation of 65 promising parent varieties (interspecific derived) in the collection for biomass, fibre and pol

slide20

Breeding for more biomass in Mauritius

New variety development initiative to meet future challenges

What cane variety for bio-energy ?

Different Scenarii

40 S. Spontaneum clones imported from Barbados in 2004

released from quarantine in 2006

slide21

M 1672/90

A new promising variety with enhanced fibre content

slide23

Current variety

Fibre 10 - 12 %

High fibre

Fibre 20 - 30 %

Sugar

Bagasse for electricity & ethanol

Less Sugar

Much more bagasse for electricity & ethanol

High quality

Pol 17 - 22 %

Current variety

Fibre 10 – 12 %

More Sugar

More bagasse for electricity & ethanol

Sugar

Bagasse for electricity & ethanol

High fibre

Fibre 20 - 30 %

High quality

Pol 17 - 22 %

Less Sugar

Much more bagasse for electricity & ethanol

More Sugar

More bagasse for electricity & ethanol

Energy cane

Fibre > 30 %

Small amount of sugar for ethanol/rum

Much more bagasse for electricity & ethanol

What cane variety for bio-energy ?

Different Scenarii

slide24

High quality cane

Bx % C

P % C

F % C

Barbados

WI 99940

19.8

17.9

18.4

Barbados

WI 96912

21.4

19.9

17.5

Mauritius

M52/78

15.7

14.3

10.4

slide25

High quality cane tested in Mauritius

Promising varieties from Barbados

Field

Barbados

Glasshouse

Mauritius

WI 99901

22.4

22.2

WI 96911

25.0

21.8

WI 96904

26.0

21.0

WI 96902

26.2

22.1

Brix % Juice

slide26

Million tonnes

Ethanol

CO2 offset

216

1.5

445

2.5

222

2.5

55

2.6

M1672/90

321

223

1.7

Energy Content (ktoe) All sugar into ethanol

Bagasse

Normal

264

High quality

371

High fibre

580

Energy cane

781

slide27

Strategic Research in Mauritius

To enhance bio-energy production

2.

Maximize trash recovery from the fields

slide28

Impact of fibre on electricity export

Trash recovery increasesfibrecontent in cane

kWh/t cane

Boiler 82 bar 525 oC  = 11 kWh/t cane

Fibre % Cane

slide29

Method of trash recovery – The DCCP concept

Sugar Cane +

Maximum Trash sent to factory

DCCP

Chopped

Trash

Clean

Cane

Factory

Quality Sugar

Bagasse

slide30

Source: Union St Aubin

World bank and GEF funded research on DCCP or trash recovery system

A commercial system to be installed at Savannah

slide31

2005

2012

4

700

301

534

1300

35 % bag

65 % coal

2000

835

2015

Additional trash (offset coal) + 250

Assuming 400 000 tonnes recovered – Conventional steam cycle

slide32

Strategic Research in Mauritius

To enhance bio-energy production

Cellulases and hemicellulases produced by micro-organisms to hydrolysehemicellulose and cellulose

3.

Ethanol from bagasse

slide33

Ethanol and Bioplastic from Bagasse

3 Steps

1. Lignin removal from bagasse

2. Convert hemicellulose and cellulose into simple sugars

3. Convert simple sugars into ethanol and bioplastic

Lignin 19.6

Cellulose 40.6

Ash 6.3

Hemicellulose 28.4

Sugar 3.1

slide34

Lignin

  • Amorphous polymer
  • 2nd most abundant biopolymer in nature
  • Binds hemicellulose/cellulose It gives rigidity to plants
  • Lignin can be used as fuel
  • Can be converted into dispersing agents and additives
slide35

Hemicellulose

O

H

  • Low calorific sugar

H

OH

Hydrolysis

Hemicellulose

  • Furfural

HO

H

  • Ethanol

H

OH

CH2OH

Xylose

slide36

Cellulose

  • Most abundant biopolymer in nature
  • Used as pulp/paper and clothing
  • Cellulose is hydrolyzed by acids and enzymes to produce glucose
  • Glucose can be fermented into ethanol
slide37

Removal of lignin

Two method were used on bagasse:-

1. Sodium hydroxide

2. Potassium hydroxide

Preliminary conclusions:-

Potassium hydroxide costs three times as much as sodium hydroxide but it has a major advantage:

It can be recovered as potassium nitrate by the addition of nitric acid, and thus can be used as fertilizer

slide38

Hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose into simple sugars

Method 1 – Enzymatic hydrolysis

Cellulases and hemicellulases produced by micro-organisms to hydrolysehemicellulose and cellulose

Preliminary results:-

At present stage the efficiency is around 10-15 %. Hence, we are currently optimizing the enzymatic hydrolysis process.

slide39

Hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose into simple sugars

Method 2 – Acid hydrolysis

Picture shows newly acquired reactor. Some tests on pre-treated bagasse were carried out at 200 oC.

Preliminary results:-

Presence of reducing sugars.

slide40

Strategic Research in Mauritius

To enhance bio-energy production

4.

Bagasse gasification technologies

slide41

M1672/90

785

1830

High quality cane

895

2110

High fibre cane

1535

3390

Energy cane

2160

4640

Potential electricity export with bagasse as fuel

Comparing conventional steam cycle with BIG-CC

Steam cycle

GWh

BIG-CC

GWh

Current varieties

700

1630

Projected island electricity demand in 2015  3000 GWh

slide42

Bagasse gasification technologies

To enhance bio-energy production

The MSIRI is seeking collaboration with a strategic partner to re-start bagasse gasification project.

The ISSCT is setting up an International Sugarcane Biomass Utilization Consortium (ISBUC). The launching is planned for 11 July 2006 in Durban. The mode of functioning will be on the same line as the International Consortium for Sugarcane Biotechnology (ICSB).

Bagasse gasification technologies will probably be one of the key issues that will be addressed.

slide43

Final Target

To make bio-refinery concept a reality

slide44

Food

products

Sugar exports

co2

Value-added

molecules

co2

Solar energy

Sugar

Cogen

plants

Cane

biomass

Sugar

factory

Cane and trash

Bagasse and trash

Biotechnology

tools

Leaves & trash

Biofertilizers

Steam & electricity

Effluents from

bioplastics

Steam and

electricity

Biofertilizers

Vinasse

Cane juice

Molasses

Steam & electricity

Sugar

Ethanol

distillery

Bioplastic

factory

Bioplastics

Ethanol

Solvents

co2

co2

Effluents

Liquors, etc.

The bio-refinery concept

slide45

Back to Earth

In Mauritius, currently the revenue from bio-energy is still low compared to sugar

Photosource: http://www.nickyee.com/photoshop/earth-atlantic-1600.jpg

slide46

100%

29.0%

@ US$ 350/tonne

Current revenue from sugar and by-products

100%

Sugar

Electricity

Ethanol

17.7%

@ US $ 560/tonne

ASSUMPTIONS

1 tonne sugar = MUR 16,900

1 tonne cane @ 10% IRSC = 100 kg = MUR 1690

Electricity @ MUR 1.75 kWh = MUR 202

Ethanol @ 0.44 USD / litre = MUR 97

slide47

Dancing nakedin the mind field

  • Dr Kary Mullis
  • “ There is a very important rule in evolution. Don’t trouble yourself with details that do not matter for survival. Who ever can do something more efficiently, survives.”
  • Page 157