Introduction of Panel Members PwC The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 What Companies Should Be Doing Now March 10, 2003 Michael Cobb (813) 222-6212 Insert Worlds Image / Client Specific Image Here
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 • Requires quarterly certification by the CEO / CFO of all companies filing periodic reports under section 13 (a) or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 regarding the completeness and accuracy of such reports as well as the nature and effectiveness of internal controls supporting the quality of information included in such reports. • Requires an annual report by management regarding internal controls and procedures for financial reporting, and an attestation as to the accuracy of that report by the company’s auditors. Section 302 Section 404
Addressing DC&P Requirements LEGEND Disclosure Requirements Disclosure Controls and Procedures Internal Accounting Controls Financial Reporting Operations Compliance Internal Controls over Disclosure Requirements Internal Controls Over Financial Reporting
What are the Questions That Need to be Asked? • What does our control structure look like and how does it operate? • Who is accountable? • How does it deal with change? • What are the critical control activities? • Are they monitored? • Is all of this documented? • How will I demonstrate that I have reviewed the controls every quarter?
Why the Need for Control Structure Documentation? • Available for third-party purposes • Enables External Auditor’s attestation work • Enables ongoing assessment of operating effectiveness • Facilitates linkage to COSO • Supports management assertions • Reduces risk and supports operational efficiency
Controls over the IT environment • Most business processes are critically enabled by IT • Achieving objectives is often dependent on IT based controls • Many controls depend on data generated by IT systems • IT controls need to be considered at 2 levels: • Controls over the IT environment (General Controls) • Controls over individual applications
Audit of Financial Statements Understanding and consideration of internal controls only to develop the audit approach Overall objective is the rendering of an opinion on the financial statements, not to opine on internal controls Internal control reports have been very rare in practice and are the subject of different auditing standards 404 Attestation 100% controls-based approach Must evaluate and test controls across business and functional areas to opine on effectiveness (broad and deep) Lack of errors, historically, in financial statements is not de-facto evidence unto itself, of an appropriate internal control structure Audit of Financial Statements vs. 404 Controls Attestation
Management’s Requirements Under Section 404 • Section 404 – Management Must Assess Internal Controls Annually (effective date pending) • Internal control report states management’s responsibility for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control structure and procedures for financial reporting. • Management must assess effectiveness of internal control structure and procedures for financial reporting as of the end of the most recent fiscal year. • Attestation by external auditor (Section 404 and 103).
The Intersection of Sections 302 and 404 302: Management’sCertificationRelated to theFinancialReportingElements ofDC&P Internal Controls for Financial Reporting 404: Basis forAuditors’EvaluationAndTesting
The Five Components under the COSO Framework Monitoring • Assessment of a control system’s performance over time. • Combination of ongoing and separate evaluation. • Management and supervisory activities. • Internal audit activities. Control Activities • Policies/procedures that ensure management directives are carried out. • Range of activities including approvals, authorizations, verifications, recommendations, performance reviews, asset security and segregation of duties. Information and Communication • Pertinent information identified, captured and communicated in a timely manner. • Access to internal and externally generated information. • Flow of information that allows for successful control actions from instructions on responsibilities to summary of findings for management action. Control Environment • Sets tone of organization-influencing control consciousness of its people. • Factors include integrity, ethical values, competence, authority, responsibility. • Foundation for all other components of control. Risk Assessment • Risk assessment is the identification and analysis of relevant risks to achieving the entity’s objectives-forming the basis for determining control activities. All five components must be in place for a control to be effective.
Control Objectives and Types of Financial Controls to Be Identified • Standard Control Objectives • (AllCycles/Processes/Activities): • Completeness of input • Accuracy of input • Completeness and accuracy of output • Authorization/Validity • Timeliness • Others: • Safeguarding of assets • Segregation of duties • Types of Financial Controls • Basic/Application Controls • Monitoring Controls • General/Computer Controls
Mapping to Controls — — — — — • STEPS: • Map F/S line items to cycles/processes • Document each existing process (detailed flowcharts and narratives) • Identify controls in place • Test controls for effectiveness • Highlight missing controls • Assess impact of missing controls • Fill gaps CYCLES/PROCESSES CONTROLS to to FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Resources Training / Education Project management Scope Setting Centralized vs. decentralized processes Multinational / Multilocation Common vs. independent systems Acquisitions Shared service centers Measurement of control effectiveness Reporting Disclosure controls and procedures Financial Non-financial Implementation Issues
Educate Management / Board Mobilize Collect Data on “As-Is” Environment Assess Maturity and Perform Gap Analysis Address Needs for Continuous Improvement Action Plan • Following an iterative approach to evaluate and assess control environment will provide readiness for 404 certifications and improve 302 compliance This process should be repeated as necessary in a continual effort to improve the level of maturity of an organization’s internal controls.