Russia 1900 - 1945 Revision Power Point
Russia • Land mass covered one-sixth of the Earths land surface • Many different climates - from warmer, humid regions, to deserts to the freezing cold Tundra of the north and Siberia. • Poor transportation - mostly dirt roads cobbled in parts Moscow and St. Petersburg • Trans-Siberian railway - only transportation link across whole country • Communications poor
Tsar’s - the rulers of russia • The Romanov’s where the rulers of Russia for many centuries. At the start of the 20th Century, 1900, Nicholas II was the Tsar, and the ruler of Russia. Nicholas was an Autocrat. This meant that he had complete an absolute power. He was not elected but was born into power. He, and most other Russians, believed that he had a divine right to rule - that he had been chosen by God. • Nicholas did not need to consult with any one else to make decisions, new laws or initiate new programs of reform. • No parliament - to represent the views of the people • Tsar - power base 10% of people - aristocrats - church - military - bureaucracy • Bureaucracy - civil servants - was massive - Russia so large it was a massive task to collect taxes and run country. • Tsar censored newspapers and books • Education was via church • Okhrana - secret police - used to stop protests or opposers to Tsar’s rule • Siberia - prison camps
Nicholas II - the last tsar • Devoted family man • Ruled by his wife - the Tsarina - a German women named Alexandra • Deeply religious • Kind to those around him yet ruthless • Anti-Jewish • Good intentions but not a born leader • No idea what the majority of Russian’s lived liked • He had no idea of the problems of his people or how to cope with them.
the people of russia • The Empire of Russia contained about 130 million people and covered one-sixth of the Earth’s continent. • Less than half of the population where actually Russian. The rest of the population was made up of peoples who had been conquered by the Russians. Examples - Cossacks, Jewish, Evenki’s etc. • Russification - Everyone in Russia regardless of culture etc - had to speak Russian, wear Russian clothes, follow Russian customs. Russian officials also governed non-Russian areas of Russia such as Finland, Poland and Latvia. • Peasants - 85% • Urban workers - 4% - lived in poverty similar to peasants. 4 families/room etc. • Military - 5% • Govt. Officials/bureaucracy - 4% • Nobility - 1.5% - owned 25% of all land in Russia • Priests - 1% • Merchants - 0.5% - development of middle class - business men, bankers, etc.
Peasants - the people of russia • Peasants made up 85% of the population. • Poor/Poverty stricken • Life expectancy less than 40 years • Deeply religion & superstitious - imp because kept Tsar in power • Lived lives of hard labour, poor health, inadequate food, infectious diseases • Cold - extremes of weather in most of Russia • Food - grown strip method - not productive as could be - had been no agricultural revolution. • Main problem - is not enough land to go around for the peasants to grow their food on - poverty and low standard of living.
Russia 1900 - Orthodox Church • Orthodox Church - is a branch of Christianity - was religion of Russia as it was the religion of the Tsars. • Orthodox Church - closely linked to the Tsar and supported his way of ruling. • Church taught that the Tsar was the undisputed leader of Russia, that he was the head of the Church and as a result he was God’s chosen representative on Earth. • Peasants thought of the Tsar as the ‘little father’. • Only education peasants could receive was via church - learnt what the church and the Tsar wanted them to learn. • Church & Tsar controlled education - reading, writing and as a result knowledge.
Russo-Japanese War • Russo-Japanese War brought recognition to Japan as a major world power. Russia's poor showing in the war sharpened the dissatisfaction of its people with the Russian government. This discontent helped shape the course of the Russian Revolution of 1905. The Russo-Japanese War began on Feb. 8, 1904, when Japan attacked Port Arthur in Manchuria. It ended on Sept. 5, 1905, with the signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth. • War started over land in Manchuria - Russia & Japan wanted control over the area mainly to have control over Port Arthur. It was the only all year, ice-free port Russia had. • Tsar thought it would be good - unite Russia and people would stop criticizing him. • Japanese defeated Russians again and again - in May the Russian navy had sailed half the way around the world - from Euro-Russia only to be defeated in under an hour by the Japanese. • War made conditions worse in Russia - food shortages, lack of industrial materials. • Port Arthur fell in 1905 - renewed protest at Tsar’s incompetence. Highlighted Tsar incompetence as ruler and added to the weight or rebellion and discontent.
Bloody Sunday 1905 • January 1905 - conditions were bad in St Petersburg - tension high • Father Gapon organized a peaceful march - to deliver petition to the Tsar - asking for help - religious freedom, 8 hr working day, minimum wage etc. • 200,000 people marched towards Winter Palace - deliver petition. • As the marchers approached palace - met by troops. • Marchers were fired upon by the troops and a massacre occurred. • The official count of the dead was - 100. • Unofficially estimates were much higher - in thousands.
1905 Revolution • End of Jan. 400,000 workers on strike • Feb - strikes spread to other cities • March & May - defeats in Russo-Japanese war - demands for change of Govt. • June - sailors mutinied on battleship Pataki • June & July - peasants rioted - looted & burned landowners houses. • Sept. - peace treaty signed with the Japanese - via USA • So far the year of 1905 had bought chaos to Russia - demonstrations, petitions, uprisings, strikes, riots and assassinations • October - strike spread from Moscow to other cities - all opposition groups united - workers, students, revolutionaries, doctors - demanded change - barricades set up in streets • St Petersburg Soviet of Workers was formed - representatives from diff. Factories met to co-ordinate strikes - organized revolution was occurring - threat to Tsar. • Tsar - had to give in OR use force - like Bloody Sunday • OCTOBER MANIFESTO!!!
October Manifesto 1905 • 30th of October 1905 Tsar issued the October Manifesto: Promised: • Parliament - Duma elected by the people; • Civil Rights - freedom of speech and conscience; • Uncensored newspapers and the right to form political parties The liberals and middle class thought they had achieved what they wanted - a democratic government. Stopped protesting - supported the Tsar. December all the troops were back in Russia - Tsar felt strong enough to shut down St Petersburg Soviet and crush the uprising in Moscow. Tsar sent troops to take revenge on those that had not supported him. The Tsar also issued a constitution the following year which reinforced his autocracy over Russia.
Stolypin & agriculture after the 1905 Revolution • Most rioting stopped in cities in 1905 but still rioting in countryside of Russia till 1906. • Stolypin appointed Prime Minister by Tsar • Stolypin set up military courts • Okhrana - secret police - everybody had to carry a passport, register with police outside home district. • Newspapers censored • Stolypin tried to make agriculture more efficient - set up peasant banks - peasants could by land of less enterprising neighbours - farmer larger plots - use modern farming techniques - wanted to develop a new class of peasants - KULAKS - be loyal to Govt. • 15% peasants got loans & bought land • Improvements - production of grain increased • Poorer peasants forced to sell land • 4 million peasants encouraged to re settle on new land along Trans-Siberian railway - made the long journeys - land already taken. • Stolypin - called his agricultural policies - ‘wager on the strong and sober peasants’.
Stolypin & industry after the 1905 Revolution • INDUSTRIAL BOOM - between 1906 - 1914 - workers benefited little conditions still dismal in cities & industrial centres. • Industrial factories - larger amounts of workers - easier to organize strikes - squashed with force - Lena Goldfield Massacred 1912 - had similar impact as Bloody Sunday • Stolypin was assassinated in 1912.
The Dumas 30th of October 1905 Tsar issued the October Manifesto: Promised: Parliament - Duma elected by the people. - The Duma’s has no power - to make laws, control finance, appoint ministers and the Tsar could dissolve them at any time. - 1 representative in Duma for every 2,000 nobles - 1 representative in Duma for every 90,000 workers Despite this the 1st 2 Duma’s were quite radical and demanded more power and sweeping changes -- Dismissed by Tsar within weeks. - 3rd Duma was more conservative - elections were altered to favour nobles/gentry even more - few good reforms passed - army & navy - 4th Duma - achieved little before war declared. 1. DUMA 1906 - dismissed to radical 2.DUMA 1907 - dismissed to radical 3.DUMA - 1907 - 1912 - more conservative achieved some good reforms 4.DUMA - 1912 - 1914 - Achieved little - WWI
Rasputin & the Tsarina • Rasputin coarse peasant, priest • Sex orgies, rumors of aristocratic affairs - even rumors of relationship with Tsarina & eldest daughters • Healed the heir - Alexis - hemophiliac - several occasions Rasputin healed the heir • Close friend of the royal family • Tsar and Tsarina suffered because of their association with Rasputin - shocked the highest levels of govt. and society. • Stolypin had Rasputin banished from St. Petersburg - Tsarina furious • Stolyping died 1912 - returned - influence increased • Articles on Rasputin censored - DUMA in conflict over Rasputin - inc. gossip. • Rasputin and his connections with the Royal Family had serious repercussions for the Tsar and his family. • Assassinated in 1916 - Prince Yusupov - related to the Tsar - decided to get rid of the Tsar because of damage he was doing to the royal family.
World War One: The War to end all Wars • War 1914 - 1917 for Russia & 1918 for the rest of Europe • In a burst of national pride Russia united - Tsar more popular than had been for years. • United under Tsar • St Petersburg - renamed Petrograd • Tsar worked closely with the DUMA
World War One: The effects on soldiers • Enthusiastic at first - some initial successes • Heavy defeats • Over 1 million soldiers wounded, killed or taken prison by end of 1914 - 8 million by 1917. • Soldiers slaughtered in futile manner - soldiers had no weapons or ammunition, some soldiers had no boots and died of weather exposure - cold, or where ordered to take control of areas, after capturing them and loosing many men, they where then told to abandon. • Officers - where ineffective, not trained, had lack of equipt, poor communications between officers and different infantry groups. • High ranking officers were not military trained etc. they where aristocrat/bourgeois sons.
World War One: The effects on Russians at home • Food was short - millions of male peasants conscripted to army - food was not getting to cities - Russian trains carrying supplies to war front - reduce trains carrying food to the cities. • Coal and industry materials where short - factories closed - unemployment - people cold and hungry • Prices of food and goods continually rose • Families lost sons, brothers and husbands in the war.
Steps to a Revolution: 1. Sept. 1915 Tsar: Nicholas II - went to the War front - BAD MOVE!!! Tsar was now blamed for defeats 2. Handed over day to day running of country to Tsarina - German - people thought of her as a spy. Population thought that the Tsar had handed over Russia to a German and Rasputin - coarse uneducated priest - rumors that he was evil. 3. Losing support - food situation became more desperate (huge bread cues and no bread), war casualties increased, 1916 winter was bad, railway lines iced - food & munitions to the war front, Tsarina and Rasputin in charge --- Tsar & Tsarina losing support of middle and upper class! 4. March 1917 -- Revolution begins -- Petrograd March 7th 40,000 workers on strike, March 8th thousands of women joined strikes (International Women’s Day) 5. Tsar order riots but put down by force -- 12th of March the SOLDIERS refused to fire on the crowds, some regiments shot their officers and joined demonstrators. Riots marched to the DUMA and demanded changes. 6. Tsar tried to get back into Petrograd - railway workers refused to let his train pass. From his train on 15th of March the Tsar abdicated.
Causes of the March Revolution: 1. Economic Causes - conditions in industry and agriculture for mass of population were appalling - low wages, low working days, little accommodation in the cities and increasingly less and less food. 2. Social Causes - living conditions of peasants and workers, October Manifesto not recognized by Tsar. 3. Political Causes - no voice for the people - DUMA - little peasant, worker representation, Tsar wasn’t running country very efficiently 4. The War - effects on the people - poor, men at work,hungry, massive slaughter and defeat, not organized, little communication, Officers did not care for soldiers well being, Tsar leaving for the front & the Tsarina being in charge, Rasputin 5. Conditions in March 1917 6. Army refused to fire on crowds
The Provisional Government& the Petrograd soviet Prov. Govt. Established on Tsar’s abdication in March 1917 - dominated by liberal minded Cadets with some Mensheviks and SR’s. Initial changes included - amnesty for political prisoners, 8hr working day, a promise to establish a constituent assembly to discuss demands of workers and peasants, abolish special courts of secret police freedom of press, freedom of speech, the right to strike, no discrimination or death penalty. BUT they continued with the war as to fulfill commitments to the allies and did little to solve the nation’s basic economic problems. Provisional Govt. set up to run the country until elections could be held. Their main aims were - to equip Russia with a constitution that would end Tsarist autocracy, to establish a law-making body with meaningful powers and to guarantee basic rights such as freedom of speech. The Petrograd Soviet also set up to represent the workers and soldiers- ,made up mainly of soldiers and factory workers. Insisted on checking decisions of the PG as well as issuing orders of its own. E.g. P.Soviet Order Num1 - obey only the soviet and elect own committees to make decisions. The supported the creation of Constituent Assembly but opposed to the continuation of the war. Dual Power - Prov. Govt. accepted as govt. but carry out decisions only if P.Soviet agreed.
The Provisional Government 1. March 12th Provisional Govt. & Petrograd Soviet formed. 2. March 14th - Order No.1 issued - Soviet in charge of armed forces. 3. April 16 - Lenin returns to Petrograd - Germans give him special passage - 17th of April the April Thesis published. 4. Elections - Socialist Rev. win followed closely by Mensheviks, the Bolsheviks 5. Major military offensive launched by Kerensky on Germans - terrible defeat - demonstrations in Petrograd 6. July Lenin goes into hiding - Kerensky produces letters claiming Lenin in pay by Germans - other leading Bolsheviks arrested. 7. Kornilov appointed head of army by Kerensky - attempted military coup by Kornilov. Kerensky panics - asks for Bolsheviks help - gives them munitions and rifles - Kornilov never came - railway workers stopped the trains and persuaded the troops not to fight. Red Guards kept their weapons. 8. Sept. 19 - Bolsheviks win control of Moscow Soviet 9. Oct. 6th - Bolsheviks win control of Petrograd Soviet 10. Oct. 23rd - Lenin returns 11. Nov 6/7 - Bolsheviks take control of Petrograd and force out the Provisional Govt.
Why did The Provisional Government Fail? Slowness in summoning the Constituent Assembly which the government had Promised The continuation of the war Allowing political exiles to return home to Russia What the peasants wanted was land, the city workers wanted control of the factories. The govt. failed to realize the needs of his people. The war further discredited the govt. Lenin - returned and immediately called for the overthrowing of the Prov. Govt. In order to gain mass support Lenin promised - Peace, Land & Bread! Bolsheviks tried to take control in July but it failed. Kornilov Conspiracy - Bolsheviks given munitions and hailed as saviors of Petrograd.
Russian Revolution October: The Bolshevik’s • Bolsheviks - saviors of Petrograd - support all time high • Won majority in elections in Petrograd but not in all of Russia • Rest of Russia - conditions were deteriorating fast - peasants seizing land, Kerensky sent out punishment brigades - made peasants hate Prov. Govt. • Lenin - told Bolsheviks to seize power • Bolsheviks slogans/aims - PEACE, BREAD & LAND • 23rd Oct. - Lenin returned • Lenin convinced Bolsheviks to seize power • 7th Nov. - Red Guards took over Bridges, railway stations, power stations etc. and Winter Palace - Bolsheviks in control of Petrograd
The Red Army & Trotsky • Led by Trotsky • Red Train • Trained troops - “3 weeks a flabby mob transformed into a efficient fighting force” • United under Trotsky and under Lenin • Built up Red Army from nothing - brought in conscription 18yrs+ • Appointed fanatical Bolsheviks to units of men • Vigorous, organized, efficient and feared leader • Red Army was bound together through friendship and common need
The Death of the Tsar & his family • 1917 Tsar Abdicates • Held under house arrest in St Petersburg • Sent to Tobolsk in Siberia for their safety • Moved to Ekaterinburg in the Urals - held by the Reds • Tsar was continuing problem for Reds - if he escaped he might unit the Whites, if executed he could become a martyr - as peasants of Russia had grown up for generations believing the Tsar was one down from god. Also family members ruling royalty in other European countries. • July 17th - executed • Different versions -surrounded in mystery - surviving daughters, sightings etc. - from Whites and Reds • Regardless after this date - no longer a threat to Bolsheviks
Civil War • Reds - one aim to stay in power, united under Trotsky and Lenin, Trotsky very courageous Held the central area of Russia, large industrial centres - produce munitions - control of railways which connected Petrograd and Moscow - transport soldiers an munitions to any place quickly. • Whites - lacked good leaders, cruel commanders, treated soldiers with disrespect, did not co-ordinate their attacks, one aim - get rid of Reds - until they won - then different aims, fighting and squabbling amongst troops, drinking , drugs, troops tied of war, refusal to fight, mutinies etc. Whites scattered around central area - often hundreds of miles separating armies, communications very difficult. • Foreign Intervention - on Whites side - Britain, France, Japan, USA - did not want to see Communism spread in Europe - but intervention was half hearted and ineffective - troops tied from WWI, countries in debt from WWI, more worried about their own economies etc. • Fighting was bitter and cruel - many atrocities committed by both sides - ravaged the peasants and workers of Russia once more. • Support of the peasants was vital - they made up the armies - Bolsheviks said they could keep land where as Whites would take it back off them.
War Communism • Economic Policy put in place by the Bolsheviks - focused all of economy on fueling the Red Army to win the Civil War. • Communist used propaganda - 5000 political posters - anti-Whites - Tsarists, foreign intervention etc. • Govt. control of industry -had been handed over to workers committees in 1917 - Lenin put in his own managers - strict discipline imposed on workers. • Trade Unions band • Food rationed • Money became worthless • Lenin needed food to feed workers - grain requesitioning and seizures of animals - peasants hid food and where punished by Cheka - peasants produced less. • Famine of 1921 - 8 - 12 million died in Volga Region • Red Terror initiated as a result of attack on Lenin’s life - Cheka became increasingly brutal • News Papers censored • Opposition eliminated - CHEKA • Control via terror - CHEKA • RESULT OF WAR COMMUNISM: • Famine of 1921 - 8 - 12 million died in Volga Region • Economy in ruins - money useless, agriculture had collapsed, low harvests, chaos in the cities - crime.
Krondstadt Uprising • Opposition to Lenin & Communist Party - grew as a result of harsh treatment and conditions of Civil War, War Communism and the Cheka. • Workers Opposition - demanding higher wages, better conditions etc. - called for Soviets without Communists. • Kronstadt Naval Base - March 1921 - sailors stage an uprising - strong supporters of the Bolsheviks in 1917 revolution - Trotsky used troops to squash the sailors - 20,000 men killed and wounded - executed in batches or sent of to labour camps. • Krondstadt uprising was a surprise to the Bolsheviks.
NEP 1921 - 1928 • Krondstadt uprising - Lenin realized the toll of War Communism - need to improve the economic situation - introduced the NEP. • Grain requisitioning stopped • The peasants give a fix amount of grain each year as tax - any surplus could be sold • Traders could buy and sell goods - illegal during war communism • Smaller factories - returned to former owners - allowed to make a profit • Larger industries - coal, steel and transport - remained under state control. • Foreign trade - inc. trade with the west - Anglo-Soviet trade agreement in 1921 • Agricultural and industrial production increased dramatically over this period. • Lenin at this time also brought in policies on: • Electrification - technologically advancing Russia
Cultural Changes 1920’s Communist Party - control tightened in the 1920’s, opposition was exiled or imprisoned, after Lenin died - new rules within the party - no factional squabbles - united party. The Red Army grew in strength, equpt. Prestige and power and members treated well Bourgeoisie - some small business were given back to owners under the NEP - emergence of Kulaks and Nepmen Peasants - shortened military service, reeducated in Marxist ideology Education - 1917- 1926 - 5 million overcame illiteracy etc, was open to all and free to all Hung on old customs - despite Bolshevik push for change - for example there was not a lot of freedom for women in the villages - old customs take many generations to change Industrial Workers (Proletariat) Education More jobs - NEP Paid in money and regularly - more food available as production increased Worker conditions better than under War Communism Church - continuosly persecuted, forbiddent to teach religion to children under 15, churches taken over and priests exiled Women - delcared equal in 1917, creches and kindergarten set up in order to free women from the drugery of family life? Or was it in order to them into the workforce? Marriage and divorce made easy Abortion on demand BUT FAMILY PROVED VERY RESISTANT TO CHANGE, HOWEVER WOMEN DID GAIN MORE EQUALITY IN THE WORKPLACE.
Lenin’s Death • Lenin died Jan 1924 - aged 53 • Thousands lined the streets • Embalmed and placed on display in a mausoleum • Was he a tyrant or a inspirational leader? • Modest man no personal ambition • Excellent leader, inspirational speaker and superb organizer • Without him on revolution in Nov 1917 • Largely due to Lenin that Bolsheviks stayed in power during Civil War • Had to use Cheka to win the civil war • Policies of War Communism - cruel and harsh - grain requisitioning etc. • Suppressed freedom of speech, the media and his opposition - using CHEKA • Red Terror • No elections, would not share power - made Civil War much worse - more casualties • Seized power without the support of majority of population (elections 1917 Bolsheviks did not win) • Millions suffered for his ideals
Structure of the CP Party Structure • Politburo - Decision making body - 7 people • Orgburo - Organizing body - • Central Committee - Runs the Communist Party - 1500 - 2000 people • Communist Party of the Soviet Union - members elected from regions Secretary-General The Secretariat - Appoints people to carry out decisions Government Structure } Sovnarkom - (Council of People’s Commissars) - Ministers in cabinet control and direct government departments - Commissar for War etc. } All Russian congress of Soviets
Fight for Leadership: of the CP • Stalin had powerful position in CP - started manipulating CP in regard to Lenin before Lenin’s death • Lenin’s Testament - warned of Stalin - rude etc - not a good leader - not made public • Trotsky - planned Nov. Revolution, well-known figure, believed in Permanent Revolution, controlled Red Army, more extreme views • The struggle for power - Battle for leadership - battle of ideas & people • Left Wing - Permanent Revolution, pure communism • Right Wing - move towards socialism • Stalin sided with the Left wing - Kamenev & Zinoviev to oust Trotsky - Trotsky lost his job as Commissar for War - no longer controlled Red Army • Stalin then sided with Right wing, Bukharin, to oust - Kamenev & Zinoviev - they both lost their jobs in the Politburo • 1927 - Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev expelled from party • 1929 Stalin then turned on Bukharin (who supported NEP) - NEP stopped - Bukharin removed from his post • 1929 - Stalin 50 and undisputed leader!
Stalin • From Georgia - born 1879 • Born a peasants - other CP leaders - middle class • Smart, educated in seminary • 1902 - 1913 - arrested and exiled to Siberia 8 times - escaped on 8 occasions • Prison camps changed his name to Stalin - man of steel • Editor of Pravda (Truth) • 1917 Nov. Revolution - Commissar for Nationalities • 1922 - General Secretary • 1929 - undisputed leader of CP • Mid 1930’s undisputed dictator of Russia - largest country on Earth
The Purges 1934 - 1938 • Millions of C.Party members, the army arts and sciences arrested and either sent to the labour camps of shot. • Public show trials - old Bolsheviks confessed to crimes against the Soviet Union. • Stalin purged the Communist Party of all people who might oppose him. • The Purges began when KIROV, a leading C.Party member, was murdered outside his office. Stalin used the fear created by KIROV’s murder to order arrests. • KIROV was very popular and there was talk of removing Stalin as the C.Party leader and putting in place KIROV as the leader. • 1934 - Zinoviev, Kamenev - accused of murdering KIROV. Confessed at trial, confessions broadcast - C.Party members executed. Imp. To get the confessions so as conspiracy against Stalin and the Party could be proved. • 1937 Bukharin, Yagoda, Rykov - to dangerous to have men like this around who knew to much about the old days. • Under torture and risk of harm to family these men confessed. • Of the 1,961 delegates at the 17th Party Congress - where KIROV was applauded longer than Stalin, 1,108 were arrested.
The Purges:How did they effect the People? • Stalin’s regime was one of fear and terror • No one spoke out against C.Party or Stalin • NKVD - secret police • No one felt safe • End of the purges in 1938 - purges were out of control - Stalin called an end to the purges and then purged the NKVD. • Stalin purged the NKVD - so no knowledge of what had happened would be available. • Stalin’s position was now unchallengeable. • No one even had memories of the old Revolutionary War Heroes - Stalin could now re-write history. • WHY did Stalin PURGE RUSSIA - consolidate his rule - for selfish reasons but also because he believed he was the only person that could industrialize Russia and secure Russia from attack by Hitler.
Collectivization • In May 1929, the new Five-Year Plan for agriculture announced 5 million households were to be put into collective farms by 1932-33. • Stalin introduced collectivization because: • 1. Agriculture was very backward - needed to mass produce food with new technology and methods of farming. Couldn’t do this while farm lots where small. • 2. More efficient farming - less peasants need to work land - releasing them to work in industry. • 3. Easier for state to obtain grain from collectives rather than individuals. • 4. Collectivization was the socialist/communist way to farm the land. • Very urgent and wanted to introduce Collectivization in 4 years! WHY! Food crisis of 1920’s - peasants producing less because it was taken off them for little pay - made more selling it at markets than from state. Peasants hid grain etc. Stalin need to remove the control the peasants had over food. The food was need for the cities, the army and the new industrial towns. • The tool Stalin used to break the peasants stranglehold on grain - COLLECTIVIZATION • Stalin blamed the Kulaks, or rich peasants - who where usually still poor but the most efficient of the peasants - many killed and sent to Siberia
Collectivization Peasants were encouraged to put their individual plots of land together to form a collective farm or KOLKHOZ. • Hand over animals and tools to the farm collective. • Work together and share everything - inc. what was produced. • Sell some of the produce to the state for a low price and in return the state would provide farm machinery and help the peasants to farm more efficiently. • Where other types of collective farms - machinery was shared but ownership of land was private or where state owned land BUT Kolkhoz was preferred type by the Communist Government. • How was Collectivization carried out then - as most peasants where not in favour. • OGPU - state police - sent to country side to persuade peasants - sign contracts demanding to be collectivized - animals, implements and buildings taken from Kulaks - form the basis of the new farm. Those who refused where shot or sent to labour camps. • Dekulakisation - was central to the collectivisation process. Stalin need to blame some one - kulaks were blamed for everything that went wrong Stalin used hatred to whip up hysteria to liquidate the Kulak class. Kulaks barely even existed - usually just the most efficient farmers with a few animals and tools. • Stalin said “We must liquidate the kulaks as a class.’
Kulak’s & the gulag’s • Kulak’s were the supposed wealthy peasants who need to be eliminated so as Collectivization could take place. • Gulag’s were Prison Camps were the Kulak’s were sent if they were not shot. Millions of Kulaks died in these prison camps of severe weather exposure, disease or malnutrition. Conditions were harsh and most never returned to their old way of life. “ At the end of the workday there were corpses left on the work site. The snow powdered their faces. One of them was hunched over beneath an overturned wheel-barrow; he had hidden his hands in his sleeves and frozen to death in that position. Someone had frozen with his head bent down between his knees. Two were frozen back to back leaning against each other… At night the sledges went out and collected them…And in the summer bones remained form corpses which had not been removed in time, and together with the shingle they got into the concrete of the last lock at the city of Belomorsk and will be preserved there forever.”
Effects of Collectivization • Fierce resistance to collectivization - peasants refused to hand over their animals, tools etc. Preferring to slaughter and eat them or sell the meat than hand them over. Peasants burnt crops, tools and houses rather than hand them over to the state. • Agriculture was disrupted. • Famine in 1932 - 13 million people died due to collectivization and the resulting famine • State was in control of grain - Govt. could now commandeer food from the peasants at incredibly low prices. • Govt. acquired the additional working force for industrialization. • Loss of expertise of Kulak class • 1928 - 1934 - decline in agricultural produce • 1940 - agricultural figures reached those of 1914
Industrialization • 5 Year Plans: • 1928 - 1932 - heavy industry focused on - coal, iron, oil, steel and electricity. Unrealistic and unbelievably high targets set. But much was achieved - electric output almost trebled. 1,500 new industrial plants built, 100 new towns built. • 1933 - 1937 - Heavy industry focused on again but communications also important - esp. railways. New industries such as chemical and metallurgy. • 1937 - 1941 - ran for only 3 years and WWII interrupted. As war approached more resources put into developing armaments - tanks, planes & weapons. Specialist - brought in from other countries to build infrastructure - dams etc. Single Managers - intro. Single managers - workers control left behind. Spectacular Achievements - spectacular building projects held up as showpieces of Communist/Soviet success. Exp. Moscow Metro, Volga Canal etc. Stakhanov’s - workers were made to work harder through punishment, awards and propaganda - the Stakhanov story was a set up but people tried to live up to his achievements to receive rewards.
Cultural Change under Stalin • Stalin controlled the Russian peoples ideas through art, education and propaganda. • The Arts - writers and artists were censored. They had much less freedom than in the experimental 1920’s. Artists were forced to glorify Stalin. • Education - strictly controlled. Discipline and examinations - abolished in the 1920’s - was brought back in 1934. History was rewritten - how Stalin wanted it to be taught. • The Church - church was hit hard - looted, bishops, priest exiled or killed etc. • The Cult of Stalin - Stalin was glorified as an almost god-like super-being. Posters, art, education, and propaganda used to do this. As stated Stalin Changed history - taught that he played a much greater role in the revolution and people such as Trotsky were omitted. • Role of Women - abortion, free-love and divorce of 1920’s was out - family was back in. Famine, divorce etc of late 1920’s, early 1930’s - vast army of homeless children. State now encouraged families to stay together. Divorce was made harder and restrictions placed on abortion. Creches and childcare readily available so women could work. Women could work in all industries and did. • Living standards increased but still food shortages. • Little improvements in housing conditions. • Leisure - sport and fitness encouraged to improve the general health of Soviet Unions men and women. Collective farms played big role in entertainment - films, festivals, clubs etc.
Political Rule under Stalin1929 onwards • Terror/Fear Regime • Totalitarian Society - ruled by Stalin. • Censorship of papers, books, art etc. all forms of media • Cult of Stalin - re-writing history - Education used as a tool to paint Stalin as “God like” • Propaganda • No people representation • No alternative political groups - elimination of political groups/opponents. • Labour Camps - few survived harsh conditions. Camps all around Soviet Union - worst in Siberia. Terrible, harsh conditions - work, food, disease, rats, fleas, bed bugs, extreme weather conditions etc.
Political Rule under the Tsar1900 • Terror/Fear Regime • Totalitarian Society - ruled by Nic II. • Censorship of papers, books, art etc. all forms of media • Tsar as ‘Little father’ - chosen by God - Education via Russian Orthodox Church - they instilled this into the peasants or you weren’t educated. - Education a tool. • Propaganda • No people representation • No alternative political groups - elimination of political groups/opponents. • Labour Camps - few survived harsh conditions. Camps all around Russia - worst in Siberia. Terrible, harsh conditions - work, food, disease, rats, fleas, bed bugs, extreme weather conditions etc.
Political Rule under Lenin1917 - 1924 • Red Terror/War Communism - win civil war • NEP • Censorship of papers, books, art etc. all forms of media • Equality of women • Education -Massive literacy program - inform peasants about benefits of Communism • Propaganda • No people representation • No alternative political groups - elimination of political groups/opponents. • Labour Camps - few survived harsh conditions. Camps all around Russia - worst in Siberia. Terrible, harsh conditions - work, food, disease, rats, fleas, bed bugs, extreme weather conditions etc. • The disagreements between Trotsky and Stalin, and then between Stalin and Zinoviev and Stalin and Bukharin, were genuine disagreements about policy, about economic organization, about the problems of increasing agricultural production. In Lenin’s day these would have been hammered out among the party leaders. Though Lenin’s personality was such that his views usually were finally accepted, people were not penalized for voting against or speaking out against him. They were certainly not killed.
Economic Development under Stalin • The Planned Economy • 5 Year Plans: 1928 - 1932 1933 - 1937 1938 - 1941 - interrupted by WWII • Make the workers work harder - Stakhanov - Impossible Production Levels • Industrialization - bring Russia into the 20th Century. • Collectivization - pulling of farming resources • Russia became a world power - evidence Cold War, Space Race. • Industry grew - unprecedented levels of industrial output - iron, steel, electricity. • Agricultural produce increase - unprecedented output of agricultural produce.
The Victory of Communism? • The 5 Year Plans - despite the exaggerated Communist Propaganda surrounding them - achieved remarkable outcomes. • Russian industrial output in the period 1928 - 1940 increased 7 fold - which placed Russia amongst the world’s leading industrial powers. • Collectivization was less successful but achieved what Stalin needed - control over agricultural produce. • Russia became world power globally - PROOF - cold war, space race • But what was the cost of this - human life, misery and suffering - Kulaks, Civil War, millions of Peasants, War Communism, Famine’s of 1921 & 1932, Purges, Trotsky, Bukharin, Yagoda, Rykov, The Tsar and his family. • 8-12 million died in the famine in the Ukraine, more died in Siberia on the White Seas Canal project.
The Failure of Communism? • Ridiculously high targets for industrial production - workers pushed to limits, produce quickly - poor quality produce - pig iron (scrap metal). • Brutal enforcement of Collectivization vastly reduced amount of meat available • WWII Ukraine German invaders were welcomed • Purges slowed economic progress - removal of most experienced men • Almost caused military defeat in first months of WWII - deprived the army of experienced generals - purged when the secret police was purged. • Russia won the war in spite of Stalin not because of him • Stalin betrayed the ideal of Marxism, of Lenin and of Communism • Stalin and his managers - his communist party - were the ruling elite the bourgeois of the Tsar
Web Sites to check out for revision • http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Russian-Revolution.htm • http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/R/RussianR1.asp